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Table 4 Frequency, age-adjusted risk, and risk ratio of the occurrence of lung cancer, identified by hospital discharge records, between baseline and 31 December 2005 by number of categories of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and smoking status among 15,365 adults

From: Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study

    Relative risk of lung cancer*
  N Hospitalized
with lung cancer | Risk**
Model A
RR (95% CI)
Model B
RR (95% CI)
Categories of ACEs, No.     
   0 5595 20 | 152.1 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
   1 4030 10 | 103.8 0.73 (0.34, 1.58) 0.67 (0.31-1.45)
   2 2447 11 | 195.6 1.48 (0.70, 3.10) 1.29 (0.61-2.74)
   3 1428 12 | 574.4 3.10 (1.49, 6.46) 2.46 (1.17-5.19)
   4 or 5 1469   9 | 433.7 2.55 (1.13, 5.74) 2.06 (0.90-4.72)
   6, 7, or 8 396   2 | 347.8 3.18 (0.71, 14.15) 2.14 (0.46-9.89)
    P for trend <0.001 P for trend = 0.007
Smoking status     
   Never 7808   7 | 58.8   1.00 (referent)
   Former 6281 37 | 225.4   4.44 (1.95-10.12)
   Current, <20 cig/d 772   6 | 591.4   10.27 (3.39-31.13)
   Current, ≥ 20 cig/d 504 14 | 1662.8   26.97 (10.39-69.98)
Total 15,365 64 | 201.3   
  1. ACEs, adverse childhood experiences RR, risk ratio CI, confidence interval
  2. * Hospital discharge diagnosis of lung cancer defined by ICD-9 code 162
  3. ** Risk (per 100,000 population) age-standardized to the 2000 Census population for California
  4. Model A adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, financial problems
  5. Model B adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, financial problems, smoking status, parental smoking history. In addition to the RR estimates for ACE score, we show the RR estimates for smoking status from the regression model.