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Table 3 Change and treatment effect for physical activity and dietary intake in men after A) 12 and B) 24 months follow-up

From: Effect of an individually tailored one-year energy balance programme on body weight, body composition and lifestyle in recent retirees: a cluster randomised controlled trial

A) Baseline Follow-up at 12 months  
    Change Treatment effect d
  intervention control intervention control   
Number 174 178 164 170   
Daily routine PAa (min/wk) 286 ± 264 244 ± 212 62.5 ± 287.9* 80.7 ± 281.7* -0.68 (-57.7;56.3) -0.06
Recreation/sports PAa (min/wk) 270 ± 423 250 ± 321 50.9 ± 463.5 38.6 ± 362.6 24.26 (-40.3;88.9) 0.03
Σ household activities (0-6) 2.5 ± 1.3 2.4 ± 1.4 0.9 ± 1.3** 1 ± 1.5** -0.1 (-0.4;0.2) -0.07
PASEa 116.3 ± 64.4 122.4 ± 68.3 22.9 ± 64.4** 17.6 ± 69.9* 1.35 (-9.84;12.5) 0.08
Fruit & vegetable (g/MJ) 31.2 ± 16.8 32 ± 16.4 4.4 ± 22.4* 2.2 ± 17.2 1.68 (-2.7;6.1) 0.11
Fat intake (en%) 34.5 ± 5.4 33.7 ± 5.2 -1.4 ± 5.5* -0.4 ± 4.8 -0.7 (-1.7;0.3) -0.19
Energy intake (MJ/day) 9.5 ± 2.1 9.8 ± 2.2 -1 ± 1.9** -0.8 ± 1.9** -0.24 (-0.6;0.1) -0.12
Sliced meat (serving/month) 39.7 ± 28.1 39.7 ± 29.9 -4.7 ± 27.3* -2.4 ± 26.4 -2.61 (-8.0;2.8) -0.09
Meat (serving/month) 20.5 ± 9.2 20.9 ± 10.2 -2.8 ± 8.6** -1.9 ± 10.5* -1 (-2.8;0.9) -0.09
Beer (serving/month) 23.1 ± 26.5 29.4 ± 30.4 0.2 ± 21.3 -2 ± 20.6 1.01 (-4.0;6.0) 0.11
Wine (serving/month) 26 ± 24.9 24.7 ± 23.4 -0.8 ± 17.5 -0.3 ± 15.5 -0.47 (-4.5;3.6) -0.03
Sugar in tea (cubes/cup) 0.5 ± 0.6 0.6 ± 0.6 -0.2 ± 0.6** -0.3 ± 0.6** 0.08 (-0.03;0.2) 0.18
Sugar in coffee (cubes/cup) 0.5 ± 0.8 0.5 ± 0.7 -0.1 ± 0.5 -0.1 ± 0.7 0 (-0.1;0.1) -0.05
Milk in coffee (cubes/cup) 0.6 ± 0.6 0.5 ± 0.6 0 ± 0.9 0.1 ± 0.9 -0.08 (-2.0;0.1) -0.10
B) Baseline Follow-up at 24 months  
    Change Treatment effect d
  intervention control intervention control   
Number 174 178 153 155   
Daily routine PAa (min/wk) 286 ± 264 244 ± 212 92.8 ± 354.6* 122.6 ± 273.2** -9.92 (-73.6;53.8) -0.09
Recreation/sport PAa (min/wk) 270 ± 423 250 ± 321 74.5 ± 499.6 23.4 ± 310.7 70.24 (5.6;134.9) 0.12
Σ household activities (0-6) 2.5 ± 1.3 2.4 ± 1.4 0.9 ± 1.3** 1.2 ± 1.5** -0.29 (-0.5;0.0) -0.19
PASEa 116.3 ± 64.4 122.4 ± 68.3 22.6 ± 67.5** 19.0 ± 64.9* -1.27 (-11.6;9.7) 0.05
Fruit & vegetable (g/MJ) 31.2 ± 16.8 32 ± 16.4 4.6 ± 17.9* 0.5 ± 17 2.99 (-0.5;6.5) 0.24
Fat intake (en%) 34.5 ± 5.4 33.7 ± 5.2 -1 ± 5.7* 0.1 ± 4.9 -0.5 (-1.5;0.5) -0.20
Energy intake (MJ/day) 9.5 ± 2.1 9.8 ± 2.2 -0.8 ± 1.9** -0.8 ± 2.2** -0.04 (-0.5;0.4) -0.01
Sliced meat (serving/month) 39.7 ± 28.1 39.7 ± 29.9 -3.6 ± 28.4 -6.1 ± 26.6* 1.88 (-3.2;7.0) 0.09
Meat (serving/month) 20.5 ± 9.2 20.9 ± 10.2 -1.5 ± 9.3* -1.3 ± 8.8 -0.36 (-2.3;1.6) -0.03
Beer (serving/month) 23.1 ± 26.5 29.4 ± 30.4 -1.8 ± 19.9 -3.7 ± 23 -0.52 (-5.4;4.4) 0.09
Wine (serving/month) 26 ± 24.9 24.7 ± 23.4 -0.3 ± 20.5 0.7 ± 18.6 -0.60 (-4.6;3.4) -0.05
Sugar in tea (cubes/cup) 0.5 ± 0.6 0.6 ± 0.6 -0.3 ± 0.6** -0.3 ± 0.7** 0 (-0.1;0.1) 0.02
Sugar in coffee (cubes/cup) 0.5 ± 0.8 0.5 ± 0.7 -0.1 ± 0.5* -0.1 ± 0.7 0 (-0.1;0.1) -0.06
Milk in coffee (cubes/cup) 0.6 ± 0.6 0.5 ± 0.6 0 ± 0.5 0.0 ± 0.4 -0.02 (-0.1;0.1) -0.08
  1. aPhysical Activity (Scale for the Elderly). Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation unless stated otherwise. *p < 0.05 and *p < 0.0001 for within-group-changes. Estimates for treatment effect (95% confidence interval) reflect the between-group-difference and are adjusted for baseline measurements and cluster randomisation. Cohen's d. Small: d = 0.33; Medium: 0.33 <d < 0.55; Large: d = 0.56.