HIV testing practices among black primary care physicians in the United States
© Wong et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 9 October 2012
Accepted: 24 January 2013
Published: 2 February 2013
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine HIV testing in all healthcare settings, but it is unclear how consistently physicians adopt the recommendation. Making the most of each interaction between black physicians and their patients is extremely important to address the HIV health disparities that disproportionately afflict the black community. The goal of this survey-based study was to evaluate the perceptions and practices of black, primary care physicians regarding HIV testing.
A physician survey was administered at the 2010 National Medical Association Annual Convention, via online physician panels, and by email. Physician eligibility criteria: black race; practicing at least 1 year in the US; practice comprised of at least 60% adults and 20% black patients. Contingency tables and ordinary least squares regression were used for comparisons and statistical analyses. A Chi-square test compared percentages of physicians who gave a particular response and a t-test compared the means of values provided by physicians.
Physicians over-estimated HIV prevalence and believed that HIV is a crisis in the black community, yet reported that only 34% of patients were HIV tested in the past year. Physicians reported that 67% of those patients tested did so due to a physician recommendation. Physicians who were younger, female, obstetricians/gynecologists, and had a higher proportion of black, low-socioeconomic status, and Medicaid patients reported higher testing rates. Most testing was risk-based rather than routine, and three of the five most commonly reported barriers to testing were related to disease stigma and perceived value judgments. Physicians reported that in-office patient informational materials, increased media attention, additional education and training on HIV testing, government mandates requiring routine testing, and accurate pre-packed tests would most help them test more frequently for HIV.
In this sample of black, primary care physicians, HIV testing practices differed according to physician characteristics and practice demographics, and overall reported testing rates were low. More physician education and training around testing guidelines is needed to enable more routine testing, treatment, and long-term management of patients with HIV.
KeywordsHIV Testing Survey Black/African-American Physicians
In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended universal, opt-out testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in all healthcare settings for individuals aged 13–64 years (unless local prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection is <0.1%) . It is estimated that about 1-in-5 HIV-infected individuals in the United States (US) are unaware of their status, and the CDC guidelines were put in place to increase the number of early diagnoses, improve linkage to care, and encourage individuals who test positive to modify their behaviors to reduce transmission [2–4]. Among persons initially diagnosed with HIV in 2008, one-third received an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) diagnosis within 12 months ; these represent late diagnoses that are missed opportunities for treatment and prevention. And although disproportionately affected populations such as minorities and men who have sex with men (MSM) were typically tested for HIV more frequently than other groups, targeted HIV testing strategies such as these were insufficiently picking up the fluid sexual networking and condom use behaviors of all sexually active adults [6, 7]. The CDC recommends that sexually active patients be screened for HIV at least once, and high-risk individuals be tested for HIV annually, but a 2008 study in 21 major US cities found that about 40% of MSM had not been tested for HIV in the past year . From 2006 to 2009, overall HIV incidence did not change significantly in the general population or among specific racial/ethnic groups, but there was a 21% increase in incidence among people aged 13–29 years, driven primarily by a 34% increase among young MSM and 48% increase among young, black MSM . The black community bears a disproportionate burden of HIV, accounting for only 13% of the population but more than 50% of all HIV diagnoses in 2009 [6, 10]. Despite this, only about 3-in-5 black people have ever been tested for HIV .
It is unclear how consistently physicians adopt the CDC testing guidelines. Previous studies suggest that HIV testing frequency could be improved if physicians increased the number of recommendations that they make to patients [11–13]. Many black patients may preferentially seek medical treatment from black physicians, and black physicians are more likely to practice medicine in predominantly black communities, but black physicians account for only about 3% of physicians in the US [14, 15]. Making the most of each interaction between black physicians and their patients is extremely important to address the HIV health disparities that afflict the black community . To better understand some of the barriers to and facilitators of HIV testing in the black community, the characteristics of physicians who represent the gatekeeper to HIV testing recommendations should be studied and characterized. For the purpose of this study, we designed a survey to evaluate HIV testing perceptions, predictors, and barriers among black, primary care physicians in the US according to physician characteristics and physician-reported patient demographics (see Additional file 1).
The survey was developed in partnership with the National Medical Association (NMA), the US’s oldest and largest medical association representing more than 30,000 black physicians and their patients, to examine how physician characteristics and practice composition affect HIV testing attitudes and behaviors in the black community. Survey questions were created with input from black physician advisors who test, treat, and manage patients with HIV. This survey-based research activity was reviewed and ethically approved by an NMA executive committee. The study included physicians only; no patients or human subjects were involved.
The 55-question (including demographic and screening questions) survey required an average of 18 minutes to complete and was administered to physicians via two online survey panels (Panel 1, July-August 2010, non-NMA members only; Panel 2, October-November 2010, NMA members), conference intercept surveys at the 2010 NMA Annual Convention (August 2010), and post-conference emails to individuals on the NMA master file (September-October 2010). Physicians who completed the survey at the NMA Annual Convention were excluded from the online panels and post-conference emails.
Physician respondents were screened for the following and terminated from the survey otherwise: black race; specialty in internal medicine (IM)/general practice (GP), obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN), family practice (FP), or emergency room (ER)/urgent care; practicing medicine for ≥1 year in the US; treating primarily adults (≥60% of patients 18 years or older); practice comprises ≥20% black patients.
Included: gender, age, race, years practicing medicine, specialty, NMA membership status, and percentage of patients treated by physicians themselves. The survey also inquired about physicians’ views concerning how proud they are of their black heritage, whether they practice safe sex, and whether they are religious.
Included: setting, type, and size; for-profit, non-profit, or government-affiliated; geographical location.
Demographics of patient base
Included: gender composition; percentage ≥18 years; percentage black race; socio-economic status (SES); type of insurance coverage; percentage with HIV/AIDS.
Physician perceptions of HIV
These were evaluated by asking about: severity of HIV today in the general and black populations; prevalence of HIV at the local and state levels; need to test routinely; type of patients recommended to take a test; percentage of patients recommended for testing; primary reasons for recommending a test; frequency physicians themselves are tested.
This was evaluated by asking about: comfort level raising issue of HIV testing; scenarios in which the issue of HIV testing may be raised; perceived openness of patients to testing; common emotional reactions to a test recommendation; reasons given by patient for refusing or not discussing HIV testing; barriers to recommending a test; factors that would help physicians test more.
Contingency tables and ordinary least squares regression were used for comparisons and statistical analyses (performed on SPSS v.17). A Chi-square test was used to compare percentages of physicians who gave a particular response and a t-test compared the means of values provided by physicians.
Results and discussion
Physician and practice characteristics of respondents who met inclusion criteria (physician reported)
Internal medicine/general practice [n=185, 37% of respondents]
Obstetrics/Gynecology [n=130, 26%]
Family practice [n=123, 25%]
Emergency room/urgent care [n=64, 13%]
All specialties [N=502, 100%]
Region in US
Proud of black heritage
Practice safe sex
HIV testing perceptions and practices of black, primary care physicians (physician reported)
Survey Question and Responses
“In your opinion, how serious of a problem is HIV today…?”
“Crisis” in the general population
“Crisis” in the black population
“What would you estimate is the prevalence of HIV/AIDS to be in the county and state where you practice?”a
“When it comes to HIV testing in general, which of the following statements do you agree with most?”
HIV testing is only necessary for my patients in “high-risk”b groups
HIV testing is part of the routine tests I recommend for all of my sexually active patients
“What would be the primary reasons you would recommend HIV testing to a patient?”
Multiple sex partners
Injection drug use
“In the past year, what percentage of the patients in your practice has been tested for HIV?”
“Have you, yourself, been tested for HIV…?
In the past year
In the past 5 years
More than 5 years ago
Key characteristics of “more routine” a versus “less routine” b testers for HIV in the past year c
More routine testers (n=173) were more likely to:
Less routine testers (n=157) were more likely to:
Be OB/GYNd (47%)
Not be OB/GYN (only 12% are OB/GYN)
Report testing patients as routine practice (74%)
Report testing only patients who have risk factors (39% test routinely)
Be <40 years old (32%; mean age 46 yrs)
Be >40 years old (81%; mean age 49 yrs)
Be womene (60%)
Be men (55%)
Have been tested for HIV themselves in past year (37%)
Not have been tested for HIV themselves in past year (only 16% were tested)
Perceive a higher local prevalence of HIV at the county (16%) and state (16%) levels
Perceive a lower local prevalence of HIV at the county (10%) and state (11%) levels
Have relatively more patients who are:
Have relatively fewer patients who are:
Low SES (34%)
Low SES (27%)
On Medicaid (30%)
On Medicaid (18%)
HIV positive (9%)
HIV positive (4%)
Specialty was the most impactful factor affecting HIV testing rates, with OB/GYNs leading the way with 52% of patients tested within the last year (Figure 1). It may be easier to raise the issue of HIV testing during a routine gynecological exam because testing for HIV can be placed in the context of general screening for sexually transmitted infections since sexual activity is assumed, and women may want to know their HIV status if they are planning to get pregnant or would like to prevent vertical transmission to the child, which align with previous observations of testing practices among OB/GYNs [21, 22]. Moreover, guidelines from the CDC, American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists (ACOG), and many states recommend opt-out HIV testing for pregnant women, and some states even require it [1, 23, 24]. In contrast to OB/GYNs, physicians in other specialties appear to find it harder to raise the issue of HIV testing in relatively comfortable contexts that would avoid any stigma or perceived judgments associated with HIV; in-office materials such as brochures or posters that educate patients on the importance of getting tested may enable more comfortable physician-patient interactions in these scenarios. While it is true that OB/GYNs see only female patients, the percentage of female patients in physician practices was not a driver of HIV testing due to physician recommendation. Also of note is that although female physicians reported testing a greater percentage of patients for HIV than their male counterparts (38% vs. 29%, P<0.05), this may have been due in part to the over-representation of women as OB/GYNs (65%, n=84), and not just a gender-specific predilection. Finally, it should be acknowledged that OB and GYN data were pooled in this analysis, and the percentage of reported patients tested by OBs alone is likely higher than the rate reported for OB/GYNs for the reasons mentioned above related to mandatory testing during pregnancy.
The physician’s comfort level discussing HIV and age was also a predictor of testing frequency (Figure 1) (see Additional file 2). Physicians who rated themselves as highly comfortable with raising the issue of HIV with patients who they perceive to be not at risk of contracting the virus tested more frequently than those who did not report being comfortable. Having conversations about HIV routinely rather than only with patients who exhibit risk factors such as multiple sex partners, injection drug use, previous incarceration, or suspected sex work should certainly improve testing rates. Physicians <40 years old tested patients more frequently than those ≥40 years old (39% vs. 32%, P<0.05). Because they received medical training during the HIV era (post-1981), younger physicians may have greater education, social comfort, and tolerance with the risk factors associated with HIV . Previous studies have concluded that female and younger physicians obtained sexual histories to a greater extent in primary care settings, and physician discomfort (particularly with opposite gender, very young or old, and homosexual patients) reduced the likelihood of physicians obtaining sexual histories [26–28]. This suggests that physicians, especially older, male physicians, may benefit from more practical clinical strategies and techniques to obtain a sexual history from all patients uniformly.
Physicians with more black (≥75%), low-SES (>45% ‘poor’), and Medicaid (≥30% enrolled) patients in their practice were more likely to test for HIV (Figure 1). These groups are disproportionately affected by HIV and may be perceived to be at higher risk based on traditional risk-based testing recommendations provided by previous public-health and medical organizations. Physicians with more black patients believed that HIV was more of a crisis within the black community than the general US population, and physicians with more black and low-SES patients were more likely to over-estimate HIV prevalence at their county and state levels. Patients on Medicaid receive HIV testing coverage and physicians can use that as a reason to recommend a test.
Physicians with more HIV/AIDS (≥7%) patients tested more than those with fewer HIV/AIDS (≤1%) patients (39% vs. 32%, P<0.05), as would be expected.
Most commonly reported barriers that limit physicians from recommending HIV testing a
Patient may perceive the recommendation as accusatory or judgmental
Patient wouldn’t want to be identified as HIV positive/worried that people will find out
Competing priorities/other needs more urgent
Insufficient time with the patient
There’s such a stigma associated with HIV, and many doctors don’t want to offend anyone
Attitudinal barriers such as physicians’ perceptions of their patients’ reactions to a testing recommendation and reasons for possibly refusing an HIV test differed according to patient characteristics such as race and SES. Physicians reported that black patients were more likely than non-black patients to respond to an HIV testing recommendation with denial (52% vs. 45%), offense (24% vs. 18%), and anger (19% vs. 11%), and give reasons such as “I’m not gay” (55% vs. 47%), “I don’t feel sick” (42% vs. 35%), and “I don’t like needles/giving blood” (37% vs. 31%) for refusing an HIV test (all are P<0.05). This may reflect a belief among many physicians that patients may not accurately assess or convey their own risks for acquiring HIV during a clinical encounter. Given that the above responses could be the reasons why many patients refuse HIV testing in clinical settings, this represents an opportunity for developing physician training initiatives on constructive approaches to communicating the importance of testing to patients, particularly given that “physician recommendation” was the most commonly reported driver of HIV testing within this sample. Compared to physicians with fewer low-SES patients, those with more low-SES patients ranked ‘Patient would perceive test recommendation as accusatory or judgmental’ (51% vs. 65%) and ‘Patient wouldn’t want to be identified as HIV-positive’ (41% vs. 59%) as less of a barrier to HIV testing and ‘Physicians lack resources to treat patients with HIV/AIDS’ (27% vs. 17%) and ‘Physicians are ill-equipped to deal with emotional reaction’ (29% vs. 17%) as more of a barrier to testing (all are P<0.05)
Only 25% and 50% of physicians reported that they were tested for HIV themselves within the past 1 and 5 years, respectively, and 8% reported having never been tested for HIV themselves (mostly males [14% vs. 4% females, P<0.05] and physicians ≥55 years old [17% vs. 6% <55 years old, P<0.05]) (Table 2). Physicians who were less likely to get tested for HIV themselves were less likely to recommend testing to their patients (Table 3). There may be a correlation between personal and professional HIV testing practices, and physicians who do not view testing as important in their own lives may project that onto their patients.
This study has several limitations. Firstly, there is the potential for bias associated with volunteering to take the survey, recall, self-reporting, and overestimating or skewing certain responses to exhibit favorable, positive practices. Secondly, the small number of completed surveys (502) relative to the number of invitations distributed (>34,000), the high percentage of respondents who were NMA members, and incomplete geographical representation may mean that the data are not representative of all black, primary care physicians in the US. Thirdly, responses were physician-reported with no patient responses with which to compare, and no overall response rate was reportable due to an unknown response rate for the intercept surveys. Fourthly, some subgroup data may be confounded since OB and GYN data were combined, and OBs differ from all other specialties given their HIV testing requirements. Finally, there is little comparative data on the HIV testing attitudes and behaviors of physicians of other races and ethnicities to make meaningful comparisons using this study’s results. Despite these limitations, this is one of the first studies to examine the reported practices of black physicians with regard to HIV testing.
Given that black physicians are under-represented in the US medical community but are more likely to practice in the predominantly black communities that are disproportionately affected by HIV, they play an extremely important role in the targeted healthcare goals of implementing routine HIV testing, early access to treatment for those with HIV, and long-term management of HIV care. This study suggests that more education and training is needed to improve the communication of sexual histories during clinical encounters so that both sides are more comfortable discussing topics such as HIV testing and sexual practices in order to diagnose patients with HIV sooner and place them into care. Training efforts and health policies should focus on increasing physician awareness of CDC guidelines calling for routine HIV testing of all sexually active adults, teaching physicians innovative and effective approaches to obtaining a sexual history, and empowering patients to proactively seek HIV testing on their own. Moreover, meaningful collaborations among government agencies, private institutions, community HIV/AIDS organizations and leaders of the black community will be needed to launch coordinated efforts to achieve these goals. As HIV testing practices improve, more patients will enter into care for HIV, and these groups will need to work together to address any deficiencies in resources for treating and supporting these patients. Future studies should evaluate HIV testing practices among physicians of other races and specialties, other healthcare providers such as nurses, nurse practitioners and physician assistants, and how new diagnostic options such as at-home HIV tests will impact community HIV testing practices, and ultimately, patient health outcomes.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Human immunodeficiency virus
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Men who have sex with men
National Medical Association
American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology
We thank all of the physicians who participated in the survey; Edelman, a market research firm, for coordinating the study; Valerie Stone (Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University; consultant and speaker for Janssen Therapeutics) for input into study design; and Richard Nettles (employee of Janssen Therapeutics), David Anderson (employee of Janssen Therapeutics), and Robert Ryan (employee of Janssen Research & Development, LLC) for providing comments on the manuscript. Graphics support (drawing of figures) was provided by Medicus International New York and funded by Janssen Therapeutics. No writing assistance was used in the preparation of this manuscript.
- Branson B, Handsfield H, Lampe M, Janssen R, Taylor A, Lyss S, Clark J: Revised Recommendations for HIV Testing of Adults, Adolescents, and Pregnant Women in Health-Care Settings. MMWR. 2006, 55 (14): 1-17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bhaskaran K, Hamouda O, Sannes M, Boufassa F, Johnson A, Lambert P, Porter K: Changes in the risk of death after HIV seroconversion compared with mortality in the general population. JAMA. 2008, 300 (1): 51-9. 10.1001/jama.300.1.51.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Campsmith M, Rhodes P, Hall H, Green T: HIV Prevalence Estimates – United States 2006. MMWR. 2008, 57 (39): 1073-6.Google Scholar
- Marks G, Crepaz N, Janssen R: Estimating sexual transmission of HIV from persons aware and unaware that they are infected with the virus in the USA. AIDS. 2006, 20 (10): 1447-50. 10.1097/01.aids.0000233579.79714.8d.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV Surveillance Report. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/ and http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/surveillance/resources/reports/2009report/pdf/table10a.pdf
- Johnson A, Heitgerd J, Koenig L, Van Handel M, Branson B, Connelly E, Hall H, Valleroy L: Vital Signs: HIV Testing and Diagnosis Among Adults – United States, 2001–2009. MMWR. 2010, 59 (47): 1550-1555.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health Interview Survey. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhis/earlyrelease/201106_10.pdf,
- Finlayson T, Le B, Smith A, Bowles K, Cribbin M, Miles I, Oster A, Martin T, Edwards A, DiNenno E: HIV Risk, Prevention, and Testing Behaviors Among Men Who Have Sex With Men — National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 21 U.S. Cities, United States, 2008. MMWR. 2011, 60 (14): 1-34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Prejean J, Song R, Hernandez A, Ziebell R, Green T, Walker F, Lin L, An Q, Mermin J, Lansky A, Hall H: Estimated HIV Incidence in the United States, 2006–2009. PLoS One. 2011, 6 (8): e17502-10.1371/journal.pone.0017502.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Laurencin C, Christensen D, Taylor E: HIV/AIDS and the African-American Community: A State of Emergency. J Natl Med Assoc. 2008, 100 (1): 35-43.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arya M, Williams L, Stone V, Behforouz H, Viswanath K, Giordano T: A Key Strategy for Reducing HIV in African American Communities: Promoting HIV Testing. J Natl Med Assoc. 2010, 102 (12): 1264-6.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Mimiaga M, Reisner S, Bland S, Skeer M, Cranston K, Isenberg D, Vega B, Mayer K: Health System and Personal Barriers Resulting in Decreased Utilization of HIV and STD Testing Services among At-Risk Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in Massachusetts. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009, 23 (10): 825-35. 10.1089/apc.2009.0086.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Petroll A, DiFranceisco W, AcAuliffe T, Seal D, Kelly F, Pinkerton S: HIV Testing Rates, Testing Locations, and Healthcare Utilization among Urban African-American Men. J Urban Health. 2009, 86 (1): 119-31. 10.1007/s11524-008-9339-y.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cohen J, Gabriel B, Terrell C: The Case For Diversity In The Health Care Workforce. Health Aff. 2002, 21 (5): 90-102. 10.1377/hlthaff.21.5.90.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Saha S, Taggart S, Komaromy M, Bindman A: Do Patients Choose Physicians Of Their Own Race?. Health Aff. 2000, 19 (4): 76-83. 10.1377/hlthaff.19.4.76.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aral S, Adimora A, Fenton K: Understanding and responding to disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in African Americans. Lancet. 2008, 372: 337-40. 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61118-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tanne J: HIV prevalence in US capital is at epidemic level. BMJ. 2009, 338: b1205-10.1136/bmj.b1205.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Campsmith M, Rhodes P, Hall H, Green T: Undiagnosed HIV prevalence among adults and adolescents in the United States at the end of 2006. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010, 53: 619-624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Keenan N, Rosendorf K: Prevalence of Hypertension and Controlled Hypertension - United States, 2005–2008. MMWR. 2011, 60 (01): 94-97.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: National Diabetes Fact Sheet. 2011, http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf,
- Haas D, Coe R: Do physicians discuss HIV and AIDS with patients? A survey of physician practices. J Community Health. 1997, 22 (6): 401-16. 10.1023/A:1025155914757.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kerr S, Valdiserri R, Loft J, Bresolin L, Holtgrave D, Moore M, MacGowan R, Marder W, Rinaldi R: Primary Care Physicians and Their HIV Prevention Practices. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 1996, 10 (4): 227-35. 10.1089/apc.1996.10.227.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: Reducing HIV/AIDS Infection in Babies and Improving the Health of Pregnant Women with HIV/AIDS. http://www.womenandhiv.org/sites/default/files/pdf/State%20Leg%20HIV%20Toolkit_2012.pdf,
- NASTAD and Kaiser Family Foundation: The National HIV Prevention Inventory: The State of HIV Prevention Across the US. http://www.kff.org/hivaids/upload/7932.pdf,
- Ashton M, Cook R, Wiesenfeld H, Krohn M, Zamborsky T, Scholle S, Switzer G: Primary Care Physician Attitudes Regarding Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Sex Transm Dis. 2002, 29 (4): 246-51. 10.1097/00007435-200204000-00011.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burd I, Nevadunsky N, Bachmann G: Impact of physician gender on sexual history taking in a multispecialty practice. J Sex Med. 2006, 3: 194-200. 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2005.00168.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Petroll A, Mosack K: Physician Awareness of Sexual Orientation and Preventive Health Recommendations to Men Who Have Sex With Men. Sex Transm Dis. 2011, 38 (1): 63-7. 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181ebd50f.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Wimberly Y, Hogben M, Moore-Ruffin J, Moore S, Fry-Johnson Y: Sexual history-taking among primary care physicians. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006, 98 (12): 1924-9.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Troccoli K, Pollard H, McMahon M, Foust E, Erickson K, Schulkin J: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Counseling and Testing Practices Among North Carolina Providers. Obstet Gynecol. 2002, 100 (3): 420-7. 10.1016/S0029-7844(02)02120-8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mahajan A, Stemple L, Shapiro M, King J, Cunningham W: Consistency of state statutes with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV testing recommendations for health care settings. Ann Intern Med. 2009, 150: 263-269.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Malebranche D, Peterson J, Fullilove R, Stackhouse R: Race and Sexual Identity: Perceptions about Medical Culture and Healthcare Among Black Men Who Have Sex With Men. J Natl Med Assoc. 2004, 96 (1): 97-107.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/13/96/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.