Prevalence and trends of the diabetes epidemic in South Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
© Jayawardena et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 8 January 2012
Accepted: 7 May 2012
Published: 25 May 2012
Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. South Asians are known to have an increased predisposition for diabetes which has become an important health concern in the region. We discuss the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes in South Asia and explore the differential risk factors reported.
Prevalence data were obtained by searching the Medline® database with; ‘prediabetes’ and ‘diabetes mellitus’ (MeSH major topic) and ‘Epidemology/EP’ (MeSH subheading). Search limits were articles in English, between 01/01/1980–31/12/2011, on human adults (≥19 years). The conjunction of the above results was narrowed down with country names.
The most recent reported prevalence of pre-diabetes:diabetes in regional countries were; Bangladesh–4.7%:8.5% (2004–2005;Rural), India–4.6%:12.5% (2007;Rural); Maldives–3.0%:3.7% (2004;National), Nepal–19.5%:9.5% (2007;Urban), Pakistan–3.0%:7.2% (2002;Rural), Sri Lanka–11.5%:10.3% (2005–2006;National). Urban populations demonstrated a higher prevalence of diabetes. An increasing trend in prevalence of diabetes was observed in urban/rural India and rural Sri Lanka. The diabetes epidemicity index decreased with the increasing prevalence of diabetes in respective countries. A high epidemicity index was seen in Sri Lanka (2005/2006–52.8%), while for other countries, the epidemicity index was comparatively low (rural India 2007–26.9%; urban India 2002/2005–31.3%, and urban Bangladesh–33.1%). Family history, urban residency, age, higher BMI, sedentary lifestyle, hypertension and waist-hip ratio were associated with an increased risks of diabetes.
A significant epidemic of diabetes is present in the South Asian region with a rapid increase in prevalence over the last two decades. Hence there is a need for urgent preventive and curative strategies .
KeywordsDiabetes Mellitus South Asia Epidemiology Prevalence Trends Risk factors
Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, placing a substantial burden on healthcare services. Historically, diabetes was considered a disease confined to developed countries and affluent people. However, recent estimates suggest that the prevalence of diabetes is rising globally, particularly in developing countries . South Asia, commonly known as the Indian sub-continent, is home to almost one-quarter of the world’s population and is comprised of many diverse ethnic, linguistic and religious groups. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Maldives are the countries of the region. South Asians are known to have an increased predisposition for Type 2 diabetes . In addition to the large population living in South Asia, a significant number of immigrants from the region are living in affluent Western nations. For example, the 2001 UK census reported that around 4.0% (2.3 million) of the country’s total population were of South Asian origin . As a consequence, a disease such as Type 2 diabetes affecting the ethnic South Asian sub-population will have potential implications on global health.
Diabetes mellitus has become an important health concern in the South Asian region with an estimated increase in the prevalence of diabetes of over 151% between year 2000 and 2030. In the same period, diabetes is projected to increase by 40% . Studies have consistently demonstrated that South Asians are at an increased risk of developing diabetes in comparison to other ethnic groups . In the UK, the risk of diabetes is five times higher for immigrants from Pakistan and Bangladesh and three times higher for Indian immigrants, with an associated increased risk of complications, morbidity and mortality compared with the native white Caucasian population . Furthermore, South Asian patients with diabetes were younger and less obese compared to the native white Caucasians . Progression of diabetes is also known to be more rapid among South Asians and Mukhopadhyay et al.  reported that the decline in glycaemic control over time was much more rapid among South Asians when compared to Europeans. Hence, it is apparent that diabetes among South Asians represents a significant health concern with differential risk factors and a more aggressive progression than in other ethnic groups.
Although there have been comprehensive reviews on diabetes in the Asian region , among South Asians immigrants living in developed countries  and from individual South Asian countries such as India , to date no studies have explored the prevalence and trends of the diabetes epidemic for the South Asian region. The present study aims to discuss the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes among adults from individual countries in the South Asian region and explore the differential factors reported to be associated with the development of diabetes in these countries.
The study was conducted in adherence to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines and the PRISMA checklist is provided as a Supplementary file ( Additional file 1). Diabetes prevalence data among South Asian adults in regional countries were obtained by a three-stage process. In the first stage a search of the online Medline® database (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System) was performed with a combination of MeSH® (Medical Subject Headings) terms; ‘prediabetes’ and ‘diabetes mellitus’ were the MeSH major topic and Epidemiology/EP was the MeSH subheading. The search limits were; language (‘English’), dates (between ‘1st January 1980’ and ‘31st December 2011’), Species (‘Humans’) and age (‘all adults: 19+ years’). The conjunction of the above results were narrowed down by adding the name of each regional country (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and Maldives), South Asian and Indian Asians as key words. In the second stage the total hits obtained from searching Medline® using the above search criteria were screened by reading the ‘title’ and ‘abstract’. Studies not satisfying the inclusion criteria were excluded at this stage. The studies selected for inclusion in stage two were further screened for suitability during stage three by reading the selected manuscripts. At this stage studies were excluded based on the following exclusion criteria: being confined to only a specific age group, being hospital/clinic-based, studies reporting the results of larger studies as duplications and studies conducted among South Asians residing elsewhere. To obtain additional data a manual search was performed using the reference lists of selected articles. This process was conducted by two independent reviewers (RJ and PR) and the final group of articles to be included in the review was determined after an iterative consensus process among the reviewers.
For the purpose of describing prevalence data for the individual countries, the studies that were most recent, nationally representative or with the largest sample size were included. For meaningful comparisons of prevalence data among the countries, age-standardized data are presented here, unless otherwise stated. Additional data not available in the published manuscript such as gender and area-specific prevalence were obtained from corresponding authors or calculated using the available raw data. Area of residence and social status are key factors determining the prevalence of diabetes; therefore, when exploring the secular trend in diabetes prevalence it is meaningless to plot the prevalence data from studies based on different populations even in a single country. Hence, when evaluating the secular trends in prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in a country we only considered studies that evaluated the temporal change in prevalence between similar populations or prospective studies based on the same population.
Presence of ‘diabetes mellitus’ in the individual studies were defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO) or American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria adopted at the time of the respective studies. ‘Prediabetes’ was defined as the presence of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) or Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) according to the above criteria. The diabetes epidemicity index (a prognostic index of the diabetes epidemic in a population) was defined as the ratio between the prevalence of IGT/IFG (pre-diabetes) and Total Glucose Intolerance (TGI) (diabetes and pre-diabetes) i.e. the ‘diabetes epidemicity index’ is the percentage of the TGI made up by IGT/IFG .
A meta-analysis of studies examining the risk factors associated with diabetes mellitus in South Asian populations was conducted for parameters that were defined identically across studies. Hence the meta-analysis was performed on the following clinical and biochemical parameters; family history of diabetes, age, male gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP). A fixed effect analysis was initially conducted for all comparisons. Heterogeneity was assessed using the χ2 test on Cochrane’s Q statistic and by calculating I2. If significant heterogeneity was present (p < 0.05 from χ2 test) a random effects meta-analysis was carried out. Data were analysed using RevMan version 5.1.2 (Review Manager, Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011) statistical software package. In all analyses a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes
Prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in South Asian countries
Study setting [reference]
Prevalence of pre-diabetes
Prevalence of Diabetes
Diabetes Epidemicity Index
Urban and rural 
ADA, WHO 1997
Urban and rural 
ADA, WHO 1997
ADA, WHO 1997
The prevalence of diabetes also demonstrated a wide variation between countries. In Bangladesh no studies were based on a nationally representative sample, however, regional surveys in urban and semi-urban populations showed a moderately high prevalence of diabetes (6.8%–10.5%) [20, 21]. In rural Bangladeshi populations the prevalence of diabetes which was 3.8% in 1999–2000 , had increased to 8.5% by 2004–2005 . In India, many studies have explored the prevalence of diabetes with estimates varying considerably between different geographical areas and between urban and rural populations. The Prevalence Of Diabetes in India Study (PODIS) reported an age-standardized prevalence of 4.3%, 4.4% and 4.5% for all adults, and males and females, respectively . However, more recent studies based on urban populations or rapidly developing regions have reported a higher prevalence of diabetes (10.1%) [16, 25] while other studies from rural Indian populations have demonstrated an even higher prevalence (12.5%–13.2%) [26, 27].
Results from the STEPS survey conducted in urban Male, Maldives showed a 4.5%, 4.3% and 4.7% prevalence of diabetes in all adults, males and females, respectively . A survey conducted in urban Nepal between 2001 and 2002 showed that 10.8% and 13.2% of males suffered from diabetes and pre-diabetes respectively, with the values for females being 6.9% and 10.2%, respectively . According to the Pakistan National Diabetes Survey (PNDS), 9.3% males and 11.1% females suffered from diabetes in 1995  and a rural survey showed a higher proportion of males were affected by diabetes (10.1%) but not females (4.3%) . No recent data were available regarding the present situation and to explore the current trends in Pakistan. A nationally representative diabetes and pre-diabetes study in Sri Lanka showed that the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes in Sri Lankan adults was 10.3% [males 9.8%, females 10.9%, P > 0.05], while a population-based survey conducted in four of the nine Sri Lankan provinces reported a prevalence of 14.2% and 13.5% of diabetes among males and females, respectively . In 2000, a regional survey in a Sri Lankan suburb (Maharagama) showed that 6.5% of all adults, 5.0% of males and 6.6% of females were affected by diabetes . Hence, according to studies published in the last two decades in South Asia, the prevalence of diabetes showed a wide variation between 3.8%  in rural Bangladesh to 13.9% urban India .
Prevalence of diabetes in south Asian urban and rural populations
Prevalence of diabetes according to area of residence
The diabetes epidemicity index
Prevalence of diabetes in different regions
Prevalence of Diabetes
The increased prevalence of diabetes in the South Asian region could be attributed to regional changes in disease patterns from communicable to non-communicable diseases . The reasons attributed to this shift in disease pattern include: increased life expectancy, rapid population growth, unplanned urbanization, low literacy and increased external debt with resultant cutbacks on national healthcare expenditure . Collectively, these and related issues have contributed to the emergence of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes as a substantial regional health problem. This so-called ‘epidemiological transition’ could also be linked to the rapid industrialization occurring in the region as evidenced by the high prevalence of diabetes among urban residents . It is important to note that this epidemiologic transition and the rate of increase in non-communicable diseases such as diabetes in developing countries is far greater than that previously observed in high income countries, and hence there is a need to find solutions in a much shorter time frame and with far fewer resources . Recent national level data from Maldives indicates a very low prevalence of both diabetes and pre-diabetes despite approximately two-thirds of the population being overweight, the highest in the region . Maldives is an island nation in the Indian Ocean and relatively isolated from the rest of the region, and with an economy based on tourism and the fishing industry. Hence it is debatable whether diabetes in the Maldives presents as a different disease entity compared to the rest of the South Asian region or differential exposure to risk factors/healthy lifestyles have resulted in a low prevalence. This difference merits further investigation.
The high prevalence of pre-diabetes observed in many South Asian countries highlights a potential indicator of further progression of the epidemic in the region. The combined prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes (IGT/IFG), i.e. total glucose intolerance (TGI), may serve as a useful measure of the public health impact of the epidemic. It has also been postulated that the ‘diabetes epidemicity index’ (% of the TGI made up by IGT/IFG) has a predictive value in determining the stage of an epidemic of glucose intolerance in a given population . Our results also bear evidence to this fact as demonstrated by the decrease in the ‘epidemicity index’ in the different countries with progressive secular increase in the frequency of diabetes increases (Figure 3). Hence with the prevalent diabetes epidemic in the region at present the recent ‘epidemicity indices’ for most regional countries are relatively low. However, it is noteworthy that the present prevalent epidemic in the region had been preceded by a high ‘epidemicity index’. Hence strategies aimed at primary prevention could be helpful to ameliorate a further increase in the diabetes epidemic in populations such as Sri Lanka where recent data shows a high prevailing ‘epidemicity index’.
Family history, age, male gender, BMI, WHR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significant risk factors for diabetes among South Asians. In addition, few studies have also demonstrated an association between diabetes and wealth/income [21, 23, 27, 42], hypercholesterolemia , physical inactivity [21, 23, 38, 43], the presence of acanthosis nigricans , graduate education  and office-based occupation . A meta-analysis could not be performed for these risk factors due to the limited number of studies or due to variations in definitions/classifications of risk factors between studies. The recent epidemic of diabetes in the region could be primarily due to environmental factors such as diet and physical activity levels coupled with a genetic predisposition [7, 51]. The strong evidence for the association between diabetes and family history highlights a genetic contribution to the prevalent epidemic . In addition, in this ethnically diverse population, increasing age and body weight have also been demonstrated as important contributory factors. This is evident by the association between diabetes and increasing BMI, waist-hip ratio and abdominal obesity [16, 22, 23, 27]. This may be the cause of the high susceptibility for diabetes and other metabolic abnormalities among South Asians .
People in the South Asia have faced under-nutrition for many generations; they are born smaller however coupled with subsequent obesity increases risk for insulin resistance syndrome in later life . A recent review has reported several dietary factors associated with insulin resistance among South Asians, such as higher intakes of carbohydrate, saturated fatty acids, trans-fatty acids and n-6 PUFA, and lower intakes of n-3 PUFA and fiber, hence the Asian diet may be an important contributory factor for the high disease prevalence . During recent years urbanization has risen unprecedentedly in the South Asian region . There are unhealthy lifestyle changes that are known to be associated with urbanization such as the lack of physical activity, changes in dietary habits and stress, all of which increases the risk of diabetes, as evidenced by the association shown in many South Asian studies. Rural-to-urban migration was also found to be a major risk factor for diabetes and obesity among South Asians . Migrants changed their lifestyles considerably within a decade and physical activity status quickly reached urban levels acquiring a metabolic risk similar to that of urban dwellers . Furthermore, our results also highlight that the levels are rising in rural South Asian communities [44, 46]. Increased mechanization of the agriculture industry, automation of daily activities, popularization of television and increased computer usage in rural areas are leading to changes in lifestyle with resultant decrease in physical activity.
An intra-urban disparity in the prevalence of diabetes has also been reported in India . In contrast to developed countries, socially-deprived urban South Asians reported relatively lower prevalence of diabetes and general obesity compared to their affluent counterparts . Ramachandran et al. reported that age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance were significantly lower in the low income urban dwellers compared to an affluent group in a similar residential area . This observation could be partly explained by the differential purchasing ability with the affluent having a higher ability to purchase food, increasing energy intake and obesity; while on the other hand, the less affluent people are more likely to engage in manual labour increasing their physical activity level. However, socially deprived diabetes patients demonstrate a poor glycaemic control, which is likely to be lack of access to proper health care facilities and relative lack of knowledge.
There were several limitations identified in the studies that this review is based upon; all South Asian prevalence studies reported the prevalence of diabetes with no distinction made between the different types of diabetes. Therefore this data could represent the sum of both type 1 and 2 diabetes. However, unlike in Europe, South Asians have a considerably lower level of type-1 diabetes (1–2%) and thus these prevalence data closely resemble the total prevalence of type 2 diabetes . In addition, all studies included in our review were community-based surveys. Hence, this data may be an underestimate of the true regional burden, since a significant proportion of patients with diabetes may well be admitted in hospitals and care centers. Moreover, some studies have reported the prevalence of only known diabetes. The definitions and diagnostic criteria have also changed over the last two decades influencing prevalence rates. However, for the purpose of describing prevalence data for the individual countries the studies that were most recent were included. Hence the variations in diagnostic criteria are likely to be minimal as older studies were excluded. In addition when evaluating secular trends (Figure 2) we have used studies that were on the same population and used the same diagnostic criteria. The definition of pre-diabetes also varies between studies, with some studies using only IFG [16, 55], some IGT [37, 42] and some using both . There is also a heterogeneity in analytical methods as some studies applied capillary blood and glucometers whereas others used venous blood and sophisticate biochemical analysis.
In conclusion, our review highlights a significant epidemic of diabetes in the South Asian region with a rapid increase in prevalence over the last two decades. It is evident that several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes among South Asians. Hence there is a need for urgent preventive and curative strategies to be implemented.
- Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H: Global Prevalence of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004, 27: 1047-1053. 10.2337/diacare.27.5.1047.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mather HM, Keen H: The Southall Diabetes Survey: prevalence of known diabetes in Asians and Europeans. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1985, 291: 1081-1084. 10.1136/bmj.291.6502.1081.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- UK population: by ethnic group: Census update. [http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=6588&More=Y]
- Erens B, Primatesta P, Prior G: The Health of Minority Ethnic Groups'99 Methodology & Documentation. Vol. 2. 2001, The Stationery Office, London, The Health Survey for EnglandGoogle Scholar
- Mukhopadhyay B, Forouhi NG, Fisher BM, Kesson CM, Sattar N: A comparison of glycaemic and metabolic control over time among South Asian and European patients with Type 2 diabetes: results from follow-up in a routine diabetes clinic. Diabetic Medicine. 2006, 23: 94-98. 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2005.01735.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramachandran A, Wan Ma RC, Snehalatha C: Diabetes in Asia. The Lancet. 2010, 375: 408-418. 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60937-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Barnett A, Dixon A, Bellary S, Hanif M, O’hare J, Raymond N, Kumar S: Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk in the UK south Asian community. Diabetologia. 2006, 49: 2234-2246. 10.1007/s00125-006-0325-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohan V, Sandeep S, Deepa R, Shah B, Varghese C: Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes: Indian scenario. Indian J Med Res. 2007, 125: 217-230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dowse GK, Zimmet PZ, King H: Relationship between prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and NIDDM in a population. Diabetes Care. 1991, 14: 968-974. 10.2337/diacare.14.11.968.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- International Diabetes Federation: The Diabetes Atlas. 2011, International Diabetes Federation, Brussels, 5Google Scholar
- Sadikot SM, Nigam A, Das S, Bajaj S, Zargar AH, Prasannakumar KM, Sosale A, Munichoodappa C, Seshiah V, Singh SK, et al: The burden of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in India using the WHO 1999 criteria: prevalence of diabetes in India study (PODIS). Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004, 66: 301-307. 10.1016/j.diabres.2004.04.008.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shera AS, Jawad F, Maqsood A: Prevalence of diabetes in Pakistan. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007, 76: 219-222. 10.1016/j.diabres.2006.08.011.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Katulanda P, Constantine GR, Mahesh JG, Sheriff R, Seneviratne RD, Wijeratne S, Wijesuriya M, McCarthy MI, Adler AI, Matthews DR: Prevalence and projections of diabetes and pre-diabetes in adults in Sri Lanka–Sri Lanka Diabetes, Cardiovascular Study (SLDCS). Diabet Med. 2008, 25: 1062-1069. 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2008.02523.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aboobakur M, Latheef A, Mohamed AJ, Moosa S, Pandey RM, Krishnan A, Prabhakaran D: Surveillance for non-communicable disease risk factors in Maldives: results from the first STEPS survey in Male. Int J Public Health. 2010, 55: 489-496. 10.1007/s00038-009-0114-y.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Basit A, Hydrie MZ, Ahmed K, Hakeem R: Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and associated risk factors in a rural area of Baluchistan province according to new ADA criteria. J Pak Med Assoc. 2002, 52: 357-360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Menon VU, Kumar KV, Gilchrist A, Sugathan TN, Sundaram KR, Nair V, Kumar H: Prevalence of known and undetected diabetes and associated risk factors in central Kerala–ADEPS. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006, 74: 289-294. 10.1016/j.diabres.2006.03.025.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ono K, Limbu YR, Rai SK, Kurokawa M, Yanagida J, Rai G, Gurung N, Sharma M, Rai CK: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in semi-urban population of Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J. 2007, 9: 154-156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sayeed MA, Mahtab H, Akter Khanam P, Abdul Latif Z, Keramat Ali SM, Banu A, Ahren B, Azad Khan AK: Diabetes and impaired fasting glycemia in a rural population of Bangladesh. Diabetes Care. 2003, 26: 1034-1039. 10.2337/diacare.26.4.1034.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abu Sayeed M, Mahtab H, Akter Khanam P, Abul Ahsan K, Banu A, Rashid AN, Azad Khan AK: Diabetes and impaired fasting glycemia in the tribes of Khagrachari hill tracts of Bangladesh. Diabetes Care. 2004, 27: 1054-1059. 10.2337/diacare.27.5.1054.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rahim MA, Hussain A, Azad Khan AK, Sayeed MA, Keramat Ali SM, Vaaler S: Rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes in rural Bangladesh: a population based study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007, 77: 300-305. 10.1016/j.diabres.2006.11.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sayeed MA, Mahtab H, Khanam PA, Latif ZA, Banu A, Khan AK: Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in urban population of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 2007, 33: 1-12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rahman MM, Rahim MA, Nahar Q: Prevalence and risk factors of type 2 diabetes in an urbanizing rural community of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 2007, 33: 48-54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Kapur A, Vijay V, Mohan V, Das AK, Rao PV, Yajnik CS, Prasanna Kumar KM, Nair JD: High prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in India: National Urban Diabetes Survey. Diabetologia. 2001, 44: 1094-1101. 10.1007/s001250100627.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Satyavani K, Vijay V: Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in urban population in India. Diabet Med. 2003, 20: 220-224. 10.1046/j.1464-5491.2003.00904.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ajay VS, Prabhakaran D, Jeemon P, Thankappan KR, Mohan V, Ramakrishnan L, Joshi P, Ahmed FU, Mohan BV, Chaturvedi V, et al: Prevalence and determinants of diabetes mellitus in the Indian industrial population. Diabet Med. 2008, 25: 1187-1194. 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2008.02554.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chow CK, Raju PK, Raju R, Reddy KS, Cardona M, Celermajer DS, Neal BC: The prevalence and management of diabetes in rural India. Diabetes Care. 2006, 29: 1717-1718.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vijayakumar G, Arun R, Kutty VR: High prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other metabolic disorders in rural Central Kerala. J Assoc Physicians India. 2009, 57: 563-567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ravikumar P, Bhansali A, Ravikiran M, Bhansali S, Walia R, Shanmugasundar G, Thakur JS, Kumar Bhadada S, Dutta P: Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes in a community-based study in North India: the Chandigarh Urban Diabetes Study (CUDS). Diabetes Metab. 2011, 37: 216-221. 10.1016/j.diabet.2010.10.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zaman FA, Pal R, Zaman GS, Swati IA, Kayyum A: Glucose indices, frank and undetected diabetes in relation to hypertension and anthropometry in a South Indian rural population. Indian J Public Health. 2011, 55: 34-37. 10.4103/0019-557X.82545.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vaz NC, Ferreira AM, Kulkarni MS, Vaz FS: Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in a rural population of Goa, India. Natl Med J India. 2011, 24: 16-18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh DL, Bhattarai MD: High prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glycaemia in urban Nepal. Diabet Med. 2003, 20: 170-171. 10.1046/j.1464-5491.2003.00829_4.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shrestha UK, Singh DL, Bhattarai MD: The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes defined by fasting and 2-h plasma glucose criteria in urban Nepal. Diabet Med. 2006, 23: 1130-1135. 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2006.01953.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Malavige G, de Alwis N, Weerasooriya N, Fernando D, Siribaddana S: Increasing diabetes and vascular risk factors in a sub-urban Sri Lankan population. Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2002, 57: 143-145. 10.1016/S0168-8227(02)00015-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wijewardene K, Mohideen MR, Mendis S, Fernando DS, Kulathilaka T, Weerasekara D, Uluwitta P: Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and obesity: baseline findings of a population based survey in four provinces in Sri Lanka. The Ceylon medical journal. 2005, 50: 62-70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hussain A, Rahim MA, Azad Khan AK, Ali SMK, Vaaler S: Type 2 diabetes in rural and urban population: diverse prevalence and associated risk factors in Bangladesh. Diabetic Medicine. 2005, 22: 931-936. 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2005.01558.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh RB, Bajaj S, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, Moshiri M: Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of hypertension and coronary artery disease in rural and urban population with low rates of obesity. Int J Cardiol. 1998, 66: 65-72. 10.1016/S0167-5273(98)00141-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zargar AH, Khan AK, Masoodi SR, Laway BA, Wani AI, Bashir MI, Dar FA: Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in the Kashmir Valley of the Indian subcontinent. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2000, 47: 135-146. 10.1016/S0168-8227(99)00110-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohan V, Mathur P, Deepa R, Deepa M, Shukla DK, Menon GR, Anand K, Desai NG, Joshi PP, Mahanta J, et al: Urban rural differences in prevalence of self-reported diabetes in India–the WHO-ICMR Indian NCD risk factor surveillance. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008, 80: 159-168. 10.1016/j.diabres.2007.11.018.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ebrahim S, Kinra S, Bowen L, Andersen E, Ben-Shlomo Y, Lyngdoh T, Ramakrishnan L, Ahuja RC, Joshi P, Das SM, et al: The effect of rural-to-urban migration on obesity and diabetes in India: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Med. 2010, 7: e1000268-10.1371/journal.pmed.1000268.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Mehta KD, Karki P, Lamsal M, Paudel IS, Majhi S, Das BK, Sharma S, Jha N, Baral N: Hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension and socioeconomic position in eastern Nepal. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2011, 42: 197-207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohan V, Deepa M, Deepa R, Shanthirani CS, Farooq S, Ganesan A, Datta M: Secular trends in the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in urban South India–the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES-17). Diabetologia. 2006, 49: 1175-1178. 10.1007/s00125-006-0219-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Vijay V: Temporal changes in prevalence of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in urban southern India. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002, 58: 55-60. 10.1016/S0168-8227(02)00125-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Latha E, Vijay V, Viswanathan M: Rising prevalence of NIDDM in an urban population in India. Diabetologia. 1997, 40: 232-237. 10.1007/s001250050668.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Baskar AD, Mary S, Kumar CK, Selvam S, Catherine S, Vijay V: Temporal changes in prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance associated with lifestyle transition occurring in the rural population in India. Diabetologia. 2004, 47: 860-865. 10.1007/s00125-004-1387-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramachandran A, Mary S, Yamuna A, Murugesan N, Snehalatha C: High prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors associated with urbanization in India. Diabetes Care. 2008, 31: 893-898. 10.2337/dc07-1207.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Illangasekera U, Rambodagalla S, Tennakoon S: Temporal trends in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in a rural community in Sri Lanka. J R Soc Promot Health. 2004, 124: 92-94. 10.1177/146642400412400214.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fernando DJ, Siribaddana S, de Silva D: Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus in a suburban Sri Lankan community. Postgrad Med J. 1994, 70: 347-349. 10.1136/pgmj.70.823.347.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Islam A, Tahir MZ: Health sector reform in South Asia: new challenges and constraints. Health Policy. 2002, 60: 151-169. 10.1016/S0168-8510(01)00211-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohan V: Why are Indians more prone to diabetes?. J Assoc Physicians India. 2004, 52: 468-474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Misra A, Khurana L: Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008, 93: S9-30. 10.1210/jc.2008-1595.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Misra A, Khurana L, Isharwal S, Bhardwaj S: South Asian diets and insulin resistance. Br J Nutr. 2009, 101: 465-473.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohan V, Shanthirani CS, Deepa R: Glucose intolerance (diabetes and IGT) in a selected South Indian population with special reference to family history, obesity and lifestyle factors–the Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS 14). J Assoc Physicians India. 2003, 51: 771-777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yajnik CS: Early life origins of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in India and other Asian countries. J Nutr. 2004, 134: 205-210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohan V, Shanthirani S, Deepa R, Premalatha G, Sastry NG, Saroja R: Intra-urban differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in southern India -- the Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS No. 4). Diabetic Medicine. J Brit Diabetic Assoc. 2001, 18: 280-287. 10.1046/j.1464-5491.2001.00421.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gupta A, Gupta R, Sarna M, Rastogi S, Gupta VP, Kothari K: Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance syndrome in an urban Indian population. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003, 61: 69-76. 10.1016/S0168-8227(03)00085-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/12/380/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.