Skip to main content


Health policies, systems and management in low and middle-income countries

Section edited by Ariadne Kapetanaki.

This section aims to publish studies looking at the impact of health policies, practices and interventions on communities in low and middle-income countries.

Page 3 of 6

  1. Content type: Research article

    Sub-Saharan Africa continues to account for the highest regional maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in the world, at just under 550 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 2015, compared to a global rate of 216...

    Authors: Corrine W. Ruktanonchai, Kristine Nilsen, Victor A. Alegana, Claudio Bosco, Rogers Ayiko, Andrew C. Seven Kajeguka, Zöe Matthews and Andrew J. Tatem

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1339

    Published on:

  2. Content type: Research article

    Mortality statistics derived from cause of death data are an important source of information for population health monitoring, priority setting and planning. In Perú, almost all death certificates are issued b...

    Authors: Janet Miki, Rasika Rampatige, Nicola Richards, Tim Adair, Juan Cortez-Escalante and Javier Vargas-Herrera

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1329

    Published on:

  3. Content type: Research article

    Early diagnosis and treatment initiation of HIV-infected infants can greatly reduce the risk of infant mortality. The WHO recommends testing HIV-exposed infants at 6 weeks of age and immediate initiation of an...

    Authors: Jasleen Singh, Suzanne Filteau, Jim Todd and Sehlulekile Gumede-Moyo

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1297

    Published on:

  4. Content type: Research article

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is among the leading causes of developmental and intellectual disabilities in individuals. Although efforts are being made toward the prevention and management of FASD in...

    Authors: Babatope O. Adebiyi, Ferdinand C. Mukumbang, Lizahn G. Cloete and Anna-Marie Beytell

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1238

    Published on:

  5. Content type: Study protocol

    Knowledge of HIV status remains below target in sub-Saharan Africa, especially among men and adolescents. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a novel approach that enables unique distribution strategies, with potentia...

    Authors: Melissa Neuman, Pitchaya Indravudh, Richard Chilongosi, Marc d’Elbée, Nicola Desmond, Katherine Fielding, Bernadette Hensen, Cheryl Johnson, Phillip Mkandawire, Alwyn Mwinga, Mutinta Nalubamba, Gertrude Ncube, Lot Nyirenda, Rose Nyrienda, Eveline Otte im Kampe, Miriam Taegtmeyer…

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1234

    Published on:

  6. Content type: Research article

    Over 60% of households (HHs) in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) consume alcohol. These HHs were more likely to report illnesses, relationship problems, and behavioral problems with children. This study set out to de...

    Authors: Rohan G. Maharaj, Terence Babwah, M. Shastri Motilal, Paula Nunes, Rachel Brathwaite, George Legall and Sandra D. Reid

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1202

    Published on:

  7. Content type: Research article

    Brazil is an endemic country for schistosomiasis in the Latin American and Caribbean countries. Pernambuco is a higher-endemic Brazilian state among the 19 states reporting the disease in the country; schistos...

    Authors: Luiz Augusto Facchini, Bruno Pereira Nunes, Eronildo Felisberto, José Alexandre Menezes da Silva, Jarbas Barbosa da Silva Junior and Elaine Tomasi

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1200

    Published on:

  8. Content type: Research article

    Suicide is a serious public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding the context- and gender-specific risk factors for non-fatal suicidal behaviour is the cornerstone of evidence-based...

    Authors: J. Bantjes, M. Tomlinson, R. E. Weiss, P. K. Yen, D. Goldstone, J. Stewart, T. Qondela, S. Rabie and M.-J. Rotheram-Borus

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1195

    Published on:

  9. Content type: Research article

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 80% of the world’s smokers live in low- and middle-income countries. Mo...

    Authors: Li-Ming Ho, Christian Schafferer, Jie-Min Lee, Chun-Yuan Yeh and Chi-Jung Hsieh

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1187

    Published on:

  10. Content type: Research article

    Several studies have demonstrated that Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programs reduce poverty/inequity and childhood mortality. However, none of these studies investigated the link between CCT programs and ch...

    Authors: Paola Calvasina, Patricia O’Campo, Mateus Mota Pontes, Jamille Barreto Oliveira and Anya P G F Vieira-Meyer

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1186

    Published on:

  11. Content type: Research article

    Community Case Management of malaria (CCMm) using Community Health Workers (CHWs) is an approach to improve access to timely and effective malaria case management in malaria endemic countries. So far the progr...

    Authors: Michelle D. S. Boakye, Collins J. Owek, Elizabeth Oluoch, Juddy Wachira and Yaw A. Afrane

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1150

    Published on:

  12. Content type: Research article

    The international community strongly advocates the implementation of multi-sectoral surveillance policies for an effective approach to antibiotic resistance, in line with the One Health concept. To comply with...

    Authors: Marion Bordier, Aurelie Binot, Quentin Pauchard, Dien Thi Nguyen, Thanh Ngo Trung, Nicolas Fortané and Flavie Luce Goutard

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1136

    Published on:

  13. Content type: Research article

    Patients being treated for recurrent or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) require long courses of injectable anti-tuberculous agents. In order to maintain strong TB control programmes, it is vital that the...

    Authors: D. B. Cohen, M. Phiri, H. Banda, S. B. Squire, I. Namakhoma and N. Desmond

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1127

    Published on:

  14. Content type: Study protocol

    Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend early initiation of HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) irrespective of their clinical or immunological status known as the test a...

    Authors: I. O. Faturiyele, T. Appolinare, N. Ngorima-Mabhena, G. Fatti, I. Tshabalala, V. J. Tukei and P. T. Pisa

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1069

    Published on:

  15. Content type: Research article

    The UNAIDS 90–90-90 strategy clearly stipulates that 90% of all people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) should have a suppressed viral load. Intensified adherence counselling (IAC) was recently recommended by W...

    Authors: Esther Nasuuna, Joanita Kigozi, Lillian Babirye, Alex Muganzi, Nelson K. Sewankambo and Damalie Nakanjako

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1048

    Published on:

  16. Content type: Research article

    Counselling has been shown to improve adherence to medication in people living with HIV (PLHIV). The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with regular counselling attendance of patients taki...

    Authors: M. Pane, E. I. Sianturi, Yin Mei Fiona Kong, Philip Bautista, Herlina and K. Taxis

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:1030

    Published on:

  17. Content type: Research article

    Malaria vector control is mostly based on Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN). To date, all LLINs fully recommended by the World Health Organization Pesticide Scheme (WHOPES) are made of polyester or polyeth...

    Authors: Armel Djènontin, Nicolas Moiroux, Aziz Bouraïma, Barnabas Zogo, Ibrahim Sidick, Vincent Corbel and Cédric Pennetier

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:947

    Published on:

  18. Content type: Research article

    The rollout of universal, lifelong treatment for all HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women (“Option B+”) has rapidly increased the number of women initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) and requirin...

    Authors: Zara Trafford, Yolanda Gomba, Christopher J. Colvin, Victoria O. Iyun, Tamsin K. Phillips, Kirsty Brittain, Landon Myer, Elaine J. Abrams and Allison Zerbe

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:935

    Published on:

  19. Content type: Research article

    In 2016, Uganda became one of few sub-Saharan African countries to implement comprehensive national smoke-free legislation. Since the World Health Organisation recommends Civil Society Organisation’s (CSO) inv...

    Authors: Lindsay Robertson, Kellen Namusisi Nyamurungi, Shannon Gravely, Jean Christophe Rusatira, Adeniyi Oginni, Steven Ndugwa Kabwama, Achiri Elvis Ndikum, Eduardo Bianco, Salim Yusuf and Mark D. Huffman

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:927

    Published on:

  20. Content type: Research article

    The Avahan India AIDS Initiative was implemented to provide HIV prevention services to key populations including female sex workers (FSWs) who carry the burden of India’s concentrated HIV epidemic. Established...

    Authors: Renay Weiner, Micah Fineberg, Bridget Dube, Prabuddhagopal Goswami, Shajan Mathew, Gina Dallabetta and Saul Johnson

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:897

    Published on:

  21. Content type: Study protocol

    A strong evidence base exists regarding routine and emergency services that can effectively prevent or reduce maternal and new-born mortality. However, even when skilled providers care for women in labour, man...

    Authors: Sandra Mudhune, Sydney Chauwa Phiri, Marta R. Prescott, Elizabeth A. McCarthy, Aaron Banda, Prudence Haimbe, Francis Dien Mwansa, Angel Mwiche, Francis Bwalya, Micheck Kabamba, Hilda Shakwelele and Margaret L. Prust

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:892

    Published on:

  22. Content type: Research article

    Uganda adopted and has been implementing the Integrated Disease Surveillance (IDSR) strategy since 2000. The goal was to build the country’s capacity to detect, report promptly, and effectively respond to publ...

    Authors: Christine Kihembo, Ben Masiira, Lydia Nakiire, Edson Katushabe, Nasan Natseri, Immaculate Nabukenya, Innocent Komakech, Charles Lukoya Okot, Francis Adatu, Issa Makumbi, Miriam Nanyunja, Solomon Fisseha Woldetsadik, Patrick Tusiime, Peter Nsubuga, Ibrahima Soce Fall and Alemu Wondimagegnehu

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:879

    Published on:

  23. Content type: Research article

    Vaccination is a cost-effective and life-saving intervention. Recently several new, but more expensive vaccines have become part of immunization programmes in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Monitoring...

    Authors: Effua Usuf, Grant Mackenzie, Lamin Ceesay, Dawda Sowe, Beate Kampmann and Anna Roca

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:864

    Published on:

  24. Content type: Research article

    The use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a core strategy proposed by the World Health Organization in preventing mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. This systematic review aimed to examine the enable...

    Authors: Olumuyiwa Omonaiye, Snezana Kusljic, Pat Nicholson and Elizabeth Manias

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:805

    Published on:

  25. Content type: Research article

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) have become a debated issue for tobacco control over recent years. In this study we investigate how Chinese newspapers have covered E-cigarettes over the past ten years.

    Authors: Shaojing Sun, Giuseppe A. Veltri and Fan Wang

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:727

    Published on:

  26. Content type: Research article

    In Ecuador, indigenous women have poorer maternal health outcomes and access to maternity services. This is partly due to cultural barriers. A hospital in Ecuador implemented the Vertical Birth (VB) policy to ...

    Authors: Ana Llamas and Susannah Mayhew

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:686

    Published on:

  27. Content type: Research article

    Although China’s modern education for public health was developing over the past 60 years, there is a lack of authoritative statistics and analyses on the nation’s development of education for public health at...

    Authors: Jianlin Hou, Zhifeng Wang, Xiaoyun Liu, Youhui Luo, Sabhyta Sabharwal, Nan Wang and Qingyue Meng

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:679

    Published on:

  28. Content type: Research article

    HIV treatment and care for migrants is affected by their mobility and interaction with HIV treatment programs and health care systems in different countries. To assess healthcare needs, preferences and accessi...

    Authors: Iyiola Faturiyele, Dimitris Karletsos, Keletso Ntene-Sealiete, Alfred Musekiwa, Mantiti Khabo, Marethabile Mariti, Phetole Mahasha, Thembisile Xulu and Pedro T. Pisa

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:668

    Published on:

  29. Content type: Research article

    Population ageing presents considerable challenges for the attainment of universal health coverage (UHC), especially in countries where such coverage is still in its infancy. Ghana presents an important case s...

    Authors: Nele Van der Wielen, Andrew Amos Channon and Jane Falkingham

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:657

    Published on:

  30. Content type: Research article

    Worldwide rising cesarean section (CS) births is an issue of concern. In India, with increase in institutional deliveries there has also been an increase in cesarean section births. Aim of the study is to quan...

    Authors: Priyanka Singh, Gulfam Hashmi and Prafulla Kumar Swain

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:613

    Published on:

  31. Content type: Research article

    There are several studies regarding the predictors or risk factors of unintended pregnancy, but only a small number of studies have been carried out concerning the socio-economic factors influencing the uninte...

    Authors: Reza Omani-Samani, Mostafa Amini Rarani, Mahdi Sepidarkish, Esmaeil Khedmati Morasae, Saman Maroufizadeh and Amir Almasi-Hashiani

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:607

    Published on:

  32. Content type: Research article

    Appropriate infant and young child nutrition is critical for proper growth and development. In order to promote optimal nutrition at an early age, the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF have developed ...

    Authors: Mildred Maingi, Judith Kimiywe and Sharon Iron-Segev

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:600

    Published on:

  33. Content type: Study protocol

    Despite considerable progress in reduction of both under-five and maternal mortality in recent decades, Bangladesh is still one of the low and middle income countries with high burden of maternal and neonatal ...

    Authors: Dewan Md. Emdadul Hoque, Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury, Ahmed Ehsanur Rahman, Sk. Masum Billah, Sanwarul Bari, Tazeen Tahsina, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan, Sajia Islam, Tajul Islam, Rintaro Mori and Shams El Arifeen

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:592

    Published on:

  34. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) control programs face the challenges of decreasing incidence, mortality rates, and drug resistance while increasing treatment adherence. The Brazilian TB control program recommended the decen...

    Authors: Mara Cristina Scheffer, Rodrigo IVAN Prim, Leticia Muraro Wildner, Taiane Freitas Medeiros, Rosemeri Maurici, Emil Kupek and Maria Luiza Bazzo

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:554

    Published on:

  35. Content type: Research article

    Understanding relationships between substance use and suicidal ideation and behaviour (SIB) has important public health implications for suicide prevention in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where 75...

    Authors: Elsie Breet, Daniel Goldstone and Jason Bantjes

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:549

    Published on:

  36. Content type: Study protocol

    To improve immunization coverage, most interventions that are part of the national immunization program in India address supply-side challenges. But, there is growing evidence that addressing demand-side facto...

    Authors: Santanu Pramanik, Arpita Ghosh, Rituu B. Nanda, Marlou de Rouw, Philip Forth and Sandra Albert

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:534

    Published on:

  37. Content type: Research article

    In the past decade, India has seen the introduction of many ‘publicly funded health insurance’ schemes (PFHIs) that claim to cover approximately 300 million people and are essentially forms of purchasing care ...

    Authors: Alok Ranjan, Priyanka Dixit, Indranil Mukhopadhyay and Sundararaman Thiagarajan

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:501

    Published on:

  38. Content type: Research article

    Social accountability is a participatory process in which citizens are engaged to hold politicians, policy makers and public officials accountable for the services that they provide. In the Fifteenth Ordinary ...

    Authors: Georges Danhoundo, Khalidha Nasiri and Mary E. Wiktorowicz

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:497

    Published on:

  39. Content type: Research article

    Kato-Katz technique has been the mainstay test in Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in endemic areas. However, recent studies have documented its poor sensitivity in evaluating Schistosoma mansoni infection especiall...

    Authors: Collins Okoyo, Elses Simiyu, Sammy M. Njenga and Charles Mwandawiro

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:478

    Published on:

  40. Content type: Research article

    Public health emergencies have challenged the public health emergency management systems (PHEMSs) of many countries critically and frequently since this century. As the world’s most populated country and the s...

    Authors: Mei Sun, Ningze Xu, Chengyue Li, Dan Wu, Jiatong Zou, Ying Wang, Li Luo, Mingzhu Yu, Yu Zhang, Hua Wang, Peiwu Shi, Zheng Chen, Jian Wang, Yueliang Lu, Qi Li, Xinhua Wang…

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:474

    Published on:

  41. Content type: Research article

    Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest TB burdens in the world. There are multitude of challenges related to the implementation of DOTS and adherence to treatment. This study aimed to assess patient...

    Authors: Zekariyas Sahile, Abenezer Yared and Mirgissa Kaba

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:462

    Published on:

  42. Content type: Research article

    The prevalence of breast cancer has been increasing in sub-Saharan Africa over the last few years. Patients often present with late stage disease, resulting in a high mortality rate. This study aims to estimat...

    Authors: Leonie Ströbele, Eva Johanna Kantelhardt, Timongo Francoise Danielle Traoré Millogo, Maurice Sarigda, Jürgen Wacker and Kirstin Grosse Frie

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:447

    Published on:

  43. Content type: Research article

    In Kenya, poor maternal nutrition, suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices and high levels of malnutrition have been shown among the urban poor. An intervention aimed at promoting optimal maternal ...

    Authors: Sophie Goudet, Paula L. Griffiths, Caroline W. Wainaina, Teresia N. Macharia, Frederick M. Wekesah, Milka Wanjohi, Peter Muriuki and Elizabeth Kimani-Murage

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:424

    Published on:

  44. Content type: Research article

    Child stunting due to chronic malnutrition is a major problem in low- and middle-income countries due, in part, to inadequate nutrition-related practices and insufficient access to services. Limited budgets fo...

    Authors: Ruth Pearson, Madhura Killedar, Janka Petravic, Jakub J. Kakietek, Nick Scott, Kelsey L. Grantham, Robyn M. Stuart, David J. Kedziora, Cliff C. Kerr, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Meera Shekar and David P. Wilson

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:384

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Public Health 2018 18:555

  45. Content type: Research article

    Universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant/ breastfeeding women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), known as Prevention of mother-to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) Option B+ (PMTCTB...

    Authors: David Etoori, Bernhard Kerschberger, Nelly Staderini, Mpumelelo Ndlangamandla, Bonisile Nhlabatsi, Kiran Jobanputra, Simangele Mthethwa-Hleza, Lucy Anne Parker, Sifiso Sibanda, Edwin Mabhena, Munyaradzi Pasipamire, Serge Mathurin Kabore, Barbara Rusch, Christine Jamet, Iza Ciglenecki and Roger Teck

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:374

    Published on:

  46. Content type: Research article

    Chronic hepatitis B infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are disproportionately affected. Economic evaluations are a useful decision t...

    Authors: Cameron M. Wright, Lydia Boudarène, Ninh Thi Ha, Olivia Wu and Neil Hawkins

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:373

    Published on:

  47. Content type: Research article

    Across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), HIV disproportionately affects men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) compared with other men of the same age group in the general population. Access to HIV services remains low among...

    Authors: Daniel Nyato, Evodius Kuringe, Mary Drake, Caterina Casalini, Soori Nnko, Amani Shao, Albert Komba, Stefan D. Baral, Mwita Wambura and John Changalucha

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:370

    Published on:

  48. Content type: Research article

    Utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC) is very low in Nigeria. Self-reported patient satisfaction may be useful to identify provider- and facility-specific factors that can be improved to increase ANC satisfactio...

    Authors: Dumbiri J. Onyeajam, Sudha Xirasagar, Mahmud M. Khan, James W. Hardin and Oluwole Odutolu

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2018 18:368

    Published on: