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Table 5 Logistic regressions predicting the development of difficulty with cognition from health behaviours in the month prior to COVID-19 infection, weighted (N = 293)

From: Health behaviours the month prior to COVID-19 infection and the development of self-reported long COVID and specific long COVID symptoms: a longitudinal analysis of 1581 UK adults

  Difficulty with cognition
OR SE T P 95% CI 95% CI
Model 1
 Exercise frequency (ref no exercise)       
   < 30 min to 2 hours 1.54 0.98 0.68 0.50 0.44 5.38
  3h hours 1.85 1.28 0.88 0.38 0.47 7.20
  Days of fresh air (>  15 minutes) 0.92 0.09 −0.85 0.40 0.77 1.11
 Sleep quality (ref very good/good)       
  Average 1.27 0.59 0.52 0.60 0.51 3.15
  Not good/very poor 3.16 1.63 2.23 0.03 1.15 8.69
  Smoking (ref non-smoker) 3.27 2.68 1.45 0.15 0.66 16.30
  More than 14 weekly alcoholic drinks (ref = <  14) 1.26 0.66 0.44 0.66 0.45 3.54
  Number of mental health care behaviours 1.08 0.26 0.31 0.76 0.67 1.72
Model 2
 Exercise frequency (ref no exercise)       
   < 30 min to 2 hours 1.18 0.79 0.25 0.80 0.32 4.36
  3h hours 1.36 0.99 0.42 0.67 0.32 5.68
  Days of fresh air (>  15 minutes) 0.92 0.08 −0.99 0.32 0.78 1.08
 Sleep quality (ref very good/good)       
  Average 1.20 0.53 0.40 0.69 0.50 2.84
  Not good/very poor 2.63 1.32 1.92 0.05 0.98 7.03
  Smoking (ref non-smoker) 4.03 4.14 1.36 0.18 0.54 30.18
  More than 14 weekly alcoholic drinks (ref = <  14) 1.68 0.90 0.97 0.33 0.59 4.81
  Number of mental health care behaviours 1.01 0.26 0.03 0.97 0.61 1.67
Model 3
 Exercise frequency (ref no exercise)       
   < 30 min to 2 hours 0.94 0.79 −0.07 0.95 0.18 4.87
  3h hours 0.88 0.78 −0.14 0.89 0.16 4.98
  Days of fresh air (>  15 minutes) 0.91 0.08 −1.06 0.29 0.76 1.09
 Sleep quality (ref very good/good)       
  Average 1.05 0.57 0.09 0.93 0.36 3.06
  Not good/very poor 3.09 1.81 1.92 0.05 0.98 9.76
  Smoking (ref non-smoker) 2.50 1.96 1.17 0.24 0.54 11.65
  More than 14 weekly alcoholic drinks (ref = <  14) 1.41 0.97 0.50 0.62 0.37 5.45
  Number of mental health care behaviours 1.17 0.31 0.61 0.54 0.70 1.97
Model 4
 Exercise frequency (ref no exercise)       
   < 30 min to 2 hours 0.94 0.78 −0.08 0.94 0.18 4.80
  3h hours 0.87 0.77 −0.16 0.88 0.15 4.92
  Days of fresh air (>  15 minutes) 0.90 0.08 −1.10 0.27 0.76 1.08
 Sleep quality (ref very good/good)       
  Average 1.02 0.57 0.04 0.97 0.35 3.02
  Not good/very poor 3.06 1.81 1.89 0.06 0.96 9.74
  Smoking (ref non-smoker) 2.46 1.91 1.16 0.25 0.54 11.30
  More than 14 weekly alcoholic drinks (ref = <  14) 1.36 0.94 0.45 0.65 0.35 5.26
  Number of mental health care behaviours 1.17 0.32 0.58 0.56 0.69 2.00
  1. Note. Data were weighted to the proportions of gender, age, ethnicity, country, and education obtained from the Office for National Statistics. Model 1 included only health behaviours (in the same model), Model 2 additionally adjusted for COVID-19 infection variables, Model 3 additionally adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, and Model 4 additionally adjusted for pre-existing conditions