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Table 3 Breakdown of categories of potential mediators of differentials in SEP adiposity outcome

From: Mediators of socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity among youth in Ireland and the UK (2011–2021): a systematic review

Early life

Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal prenatal smoking, maternal prenatal drinking, birthweight, delivery type, breastfeeding duration (and never), time of weaning

Child screen time

Television viewing, computer use, video gaming, DVD use

Child diet

Consumption of fruit, vegetable, sugar drink, crisps, chips, junk food, fast foods, sweets, chocolate, breakfast, dietary quality index

Parent-level factors

Maternal BMI, parental BMI, parent weight status, age of parents, mother age of immigration, parent current smoker, parenting style (main meal while watching television, meals eaten in non-food area, child bedroom media)

Child health and behaviours

Physical activity, sport/exercise, sedentary behaviour, sleep time, active play with parent, mode of travel to school, hospital nights, doctor visits

Child-level factor

Child height

Geographical factors

Greenspace, access to garden, condition of neighbourhood, home and neighbourhood environment, crime, aesthetics, urban/rural, proximity to recreational facilities, counts of fast/other unhealthy/mixed food outlets, proximity of fast food outlets

Household-level factors

One/two adult households, home owner, family income, perceived effect of economic recession, financial difficulty, place of birth, race/ethnic group


Verbal and physical maltreatment, parental divorce, parental drug use, alcohol use, maternal mental illness, domestic violence, number of residential moves, parent death, parent job loss

School-level factors

Deprivation based on the percentage of children receiving free school meals

  1. Abbreviations: ACEs Adverse Childhood Event, BMI Body Mass Index, SEP Socioeconomic Position