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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in scoping review

From: Mediators of socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity among youth in Ireland and the UK (2011–2021): a systematic review

Author (year) and country Sample Characteristics (n, age (SD), % female) Study design & instruments Indicator of body weight (including measurement method and categorisation, descriptives) Indicator of socioeconomic position Mediators Quality Score
Cetateanu et al., 2014, UK [46] 2007–08: n = 973,073 and 2008–09: n = 1,003,849 and 2009–10: n = 1,026,366, age: 4–5 years, 10–11 years Cross-sectional, data from census, ONS and GIS (NCMP) Objectively measured wgt and hgt, defining BMI >  = 85th and <  = 95th percentile as OW and obesity as > 95th percentile using UK90 BMI references IDACI (measuring relative deprivation including income, employment, education, skills and trainings, health and disability, crime, barriers to housing and services, and living environment), and area SEP Geography (food environment characteristics: counts of fast food, other unhealthy food, mixed food outlets) Strong
Goisis et al., 2016, UK [39] n = 11,965, age: 5 years and n = 9,384, age: 11 years, 48.4% female Longitudinal, home visit interviews (PCG) (MCS) Objectively measured wgt and hgt, defining OW/OB using IOTF criteria; Sample average: 20% OW, 5.8% OB Family income Early life (maternal prenatal smoking, breastfeeding duration, weaning); child health behaviours (physical activity, child sedentary behaviour, active play with parent, sleep time, mode of travel to school); screen time (television and computer); child diet (breakfast, fruit and sugar drink consumption); parent-level (maternal BMI) Moderate
Goisis et al., 2019, UK [31] n = 11,331, age: 7 years, 49.5% female Longitudinal, home visit interviews (PCG) (MCS) Objectively measured wgt and hgt, categorized into non-overweight, OW/OB using IOTF cut-offs Family income Ethnicity; early life (maternal prenatal smoking, breastfeeding duration, weaning); child health behaviours (sport/exercise, active playing with parent, regular bedtime); Screen time/media exposure (television and computer use); child diet (breakfast, fruit, sugar drinks); parent-level (maternal overweight/obese at time of survey; parenting: meals eaten with parent) Moderate
Laverty et al., 2021, UK [40] n = 8,432, age: 7, 11 and 14 years, 51.3% female Longitudinal, home visit interviews (PCG and child) (MCS) Objectively measured wgt and hgt, used to calculate BMI and % BF Family income, occupational social class Child health behaviour (mode of travel to school) Strong
Layte et al., 2014, Ireland [17] n = 9,057, age: birth, 9 months and 3 years, 49% female Longitudinal, home visit interviews (PCG) and health records (GUI) Birthweight: taken from health professions birth records converted to z scores. Age 9 months: objectively measured wgt converted to z scores. Age 3: objectively measured wgt and hgt, categorized into OW/OB using IOTF cut-offs Household social class (Irish Central Statistics office) Early life (maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption, duration of breastfeeding, weaning); child diet (dietary quality index); screen time/media exposure (television and DVD use) Moderate
Lu et al., 2020, UK [43] n = 15,996, age: 3, 5, 7, 11 and 14 years, 48.3% female Longitudinal, home visit interviews (PCG) (MCS) Objectively measured wgt and hgt, defining OB and OB using both IOTF and WHO criteria; OW & OB: 28.5% (IOTF); 35% (WHO) Maternal education, family income Ethnicity Moderate
Martinson et al., 2012, UK and USA [37] US sample: FFS, n = 2,930, age 1, 3, 5 and 9 years UK sample: MCS, n = 6,816, age 3, 5, 7 and 9 years US: Longitudinal, parental hospital and home visit interviews. (FFS) UK: Longitudinal, home visit interviews (PCG) (MCS) US sample: BMI calculated from wgt and hgt at ages 3 and 9 UK sample: Objectively measured wgt and hgt, BMI calculated from wgt and hgt at ages 3 and 7; BMI categorised using CDC guidelines with 85th percentile designating OW Maternal education, family income Ethnicity; Parent-level factors (age mother immigrated (under/over 18 years)) Moderate
Massion et al., 2016, UK [25] n = 11,764, age: 11 years, 48% female Longitudinal, home visit interviews (PCG) (MCS) Objectively measured wgt and hgt, defining OW/OB using IOTF criteria; 28.8% OW at age 11 Maternal education Early life factors (maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal prenatal smoking, BW, caesarean delivery, breastfeeding duration, weaning) Strong
Mireku et al., 2020, UK [45] n = 11,714, age: 14 years, 47.6% female Longitudinal, home visit interviews (PCG) (MCS) Objectively measured wgt and hgt. BMI used to classify OW and OB using IOTF cut-offs. 8.0% OB, 27.2% OW Area of deprivation Household-level (income (equivalised)) Moderate
Noonan et al., 2016, UK [41] n = 194, age: 9–10 years, 55.1% female Cross-sectional, data from NSPD, in-school interviews (child), parental questionnaires (via school) Objectively measured wgt and hgt, used to calculate BMI and BMI z-scores. Normal weight and OW/OB defined using IOFT. 26% OW/OB IMD (family income, employment, health education, housing, environment, crime) Geography (home and neighbourhood environments (including crime and aesthetics)); child health behaviour (physical activity); parent-level (child bedroom TV) Moderate
Noonan, 2018, UK [28] n = 10,736, age: 9 months-14 years, 49.5% female Longitudinal, home visit interviews (PCG and child) (MCS) Objectively measured wgt and hgt, categorized into non-overweight, OW/OB using IOTF cut-offs; OW 26.6%, OB 7.4% Family income Child diet (fruit, veg, sugary drink, and fast food consumption) Moderate
Noonan et al., 2018, UK [30] n = 3,717, age: 7 years, 51% female Longitudinal, home visit interviews (PCG), physical activity assessment (MCS) Objectively measured wgt and hgt, categorized into normal OW OB using IOTF criteria; 17% OW, 14% OB Maternal education and area deprivation Child health behaviours (physical activity) Moderate
Oude Groeniger et al., 2020, UK [27] n = 11,413, age: 7–14 years, 47% female Longitudinal, home visit interviews (PCG) (MCS) Objectively measured wgt and hgt, defining OB using IOTF criteria; 8% OB at age 14 Maternal education Screen time/media exposure (television viewing and computer use) Strong
Parkes et al., 2016, UK [34] n = 2,957, age: 46, 70 and 94 months, 48.4% female Longitudinal, in-home interviews (PCG) (GUS) Objectively measured wgt and hgt, at 46, 70 and 94 months used to derive standardised BMI z-scores using UK90 British growth reference data Maternal education Parent-level (parenting: main meal while watching TV, meals eaten in non-dining/food preparation area (e.g. bedroom), child bedroom TV); Child diet (skip breakfast, fruit, veg, crisps, sugar drinks, sweets, and chocolate consumption) Strong
Samani-Radia et al., 2011, UK [29] n = 2,298, age: 5–14 years, 45.6% female Cross-sectional, in-school surveys, LEA data Objectively measured wgt and hgt, categorized into non-overweight, OW/OB using IOTF cut-offs and % BF cut-offs using UK90 growth reference data categorizing overfat and obese Environment (poorer urban/inner city London area with a high density of social housing) and income characteristics defined at school-level (% of children receiving free school meals) Child height Moderate
Schalkwijk et al., 2017, UK [38] n = 6,467, age: 9 months, 3, 5 and 7 years, 49.7% female Longitudinal, home visit interviews (PCG) observational assessment (interviewer) (MCS) Objectively measured wgt and hgt, defining OB using IOTF criteria; defining normal, 19.9% OW/OB at 7 years Parental education, family income Geography (greenspace, access to garden, condition of neighbourhood) Strong
Silverwood et al., 2016, UK [36] n = 16,628, age: 6–9 weeks, 21–24 and 39–42 months, and 48 months, 48.4% female Longitudinal, census and SIMD data, child health records (CHSP Pre-School). (SLS) Length/height, weight and age derived from CHSP pre-school records at 6–8 weeks, 8–9 weeks, 21–24 months, 39–42 months and 48 months. Predicted BMI at age 4.5 years derived from predicted hgt and wgt values with OW at age 4.5 defined using Cole (2000) standard definition Maternal education, Scottish IMD, family income Early life (BW) Moderate
Straatmann et al., 2020, UK [26] n = 6,306, age: 14 years Longitudinal, home visit interviews (PCG) (MCS) Objectively measured wgt and hgt, defining OW/OB using IOTF criteria; 24.6% OW/OB Maternal education ACE (verbal and physical maltreatment, parental divorce, drug use, alcohol use, maternal mental illness, domestic violence) Strong
Strugnell et al., 2020, UK [44] n = 2.35 million, age: 4–5 years, 10–11 years, 49% female Cross-sectional, school records (NCMP) Objectively measured wgt and hgt. IOTF growth reference used to classify OW and OB IDACI (measuring relative deprivation including income, employment, education, skills and trainings, health and disability, crime, barriers to housing and services, and living environment) Ethnicity Weak
Stuart et al., 2016, UK [35] n = 9,699, age: 3, 5, 7, 11 years, 50.7% female Longitudinal, home visit interviews (PCG) (MCS) Objectively measure wgt and hgt, categorized into OW/OB using IOTF cut-offs Parental income, parental education, persistent poverty indicator Early life (maternal prenatal smoking, breastfeeding (never), low BW, high BW) Strong
Townsend et al., 2011, UK [32] n = 396,171, age: 4–5 years, 48% female and n = 392,344, age: 10–11 years, 48% female Longitudinal, data from NCMP, CWI scores via the DCLG, FSM via school census data from DCSF (NCMP) Objectively measured wgt and hgt, resulting in z-scores using UK90 growth reference (Cole 1995, 1998) CWI (a composite score of seven domains: material well-being, health, education, crime, housing, environment, children in need) School-level deprivation: FSM (% of children receiving free school meals) Strong
Walsh et al., 2015, Ireland [42] n = 8,599, age: 9 years, 45.1% female Cross-sectional, home visit interviews (PCG and child) (GUI) Objectively measured wgt and hgt, defining OB and OW/OB using IOTF cut-offs. 5.3% OB, 24.1% OW/OB Family income Geography (urban/rural, proximity to recreational facilities); household-level (home owner); parent-level (age of parents, parent BMI, current smoker, child bedroom media); early life (maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption, breastfed (ever), BW); child health behaviour (frequency of exercise, hospital nights, doctor visits); screen time (TV, computer and video games); child diet (sugar drinks, crisps, chips, junk food) Strong
Wijlaars et al., 2011, UK [33] n = 2,394, age: birth-3 months, 50.5% female Longitudinal, questionnaire (PCG), child health records (Gemini study) Health professions record of infant weight used to calculate weight standard deviation scores at birth and 3 months based on UK90 growth reference data NS-SEC (based on occupation, maternal education qualifications) Early life (maternal prenatal smoking, breastfeeding duration, weaning); parent-level (BMI) Moderate
  1. Abbreviations: ACE Adverse Childhood Experience, ALSPAC Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (UK), BF Body fat, BMI Body Mass Index, BW Birth weight, CI Confidence Interval, CHSP Pre-School Child Health System Programme Pre-School (UK), CWI Child Wellbeing Index (UK), DCLG Department of Communities and Local Government (UK), DCSF Department for Children, Schools and Families (UK), FFS Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (US), FSM Free School Meals, GIS Geographic Information System (UK), GUI Growing Up in Ireland (Ireland), GUS Growing up in Scotland (UK), Hgt height, HSE Health Survey for England (UK), IDACI Income Deprivation affecting Children Index (UK), IMD Index of Multiple Deprivation (UK), IOTF International Obesity Task Force, LEA Local Education Authority (UK), MCS Millennium Cohort Study (UK), NCMP National Child Measurement Programme (UK), NS-SEC National Statistics Socioeconomic Class index (UK), NSPD National Statistics Postcode Directory (UK), OB Obese, OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ONS Office for National Statistics (UK), OW Overweight, PCG Primary Care Giver, SD Standard Deviation, SEP Socioeconomic position, SIMD Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (UK), SLS Scottish Longitudinal Study (UK), TV Television, Wgt weight