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Table 1 General characteristics of the study population a

From: Association between years with incidence of communicable diseases focused on COVID-19 and hand hygiene among adults in South Korea: a cross-sectional study

Variables Handwashing
Total Yes No P-value
N % N % N %
Total (N = 1,034,422) 1,034,422 100.0 462,123 44.7 572,299 55.3  
Year         < 0.0001
2013 187,837 18.2 68,670 36.6 119,167 63.4  
2015 225,086 21.8 88,855 39.5 136,231 60.5  
2017 225,174 21.8 90,324 40.1 134,850 59.9  
2019 173,705 16.8 69,712 40.1 103,993 59.9  
2020 222,620 21.5 144,562 64.9 78,058 35.1  
Sex         < 0.0001
Men 480,923 46.5 182,960 38.0 297,963 62.0  
Women 553,499 53.5 279,163 50.4 274,336 49.6  
Age (mean: 55.0, SD: 16.9)         < 0.0001
19–29 92,868 9.0 48,713 52.5 44,155 47.5  
30–39 133,009 12.9 75,886 57.1 57,123 42.9  
40–49 183,532 17.7 92,431 50.4 91,101 49.6  
50–59 211,160 20.4 96,030 45.5 115,130 54.5  
60–69 189,775 18.3 80,490 42.4 109,285 57.6  
70- 224,078 21.7 68,573 30.6 155,505 69.4  
Marital status         < 0.0001
Living with spouse 712,644 68.9 325,059 45.6 387,585 54.4  
Living without spouse 321,778 31.1 137,064 42.6 184,714 57.4  
Region         < 0.0001
Urban area 298,002 28.8 155,510 52.2 142,492 47.8  
Rural area 736,420 71.2 306,613 41.6 492,807 58.4  
Household income         < 0.0001
High 300,755 29.1 156,908 52.2 143,847 47.8  
Mid 336,671 32.5 159,020 47.2 177,651 52.8  
Low 396,996 38.4 146,195 36.8 250,801 63.2  
Occupational categories b         < 0.0001
White collar 202,879 19.6 114,900 56.6 87,979 43.4  
Pink collar 138,382 13.4 71,784 51.9 66,598 48.1  
Blue collar 336,648 32.5 120,545 35.8 216,103 64.2  
Inoccupation 356,513 34.5 154,894 43.4 201,619 56.6  
Educational level         < 0.0001
Middle school or less 375,346 36.3 122,086 32.5 253,260 67.5  
High school 300,958 29.1 139,165 46.2 161,793 53.8  
College or over 358,118 34.6 200,872 56.1 157,246 43.9  
Perceived stress         < 0.0001
Much 246,677 23.8 112,589 45.6 134,088 54.4  
Less 787,745 76.2 349,534 44.4 438,211 55.6  
Current drinking         < 0.0001
Yes 670,820 64.8 304,360 45.4 366,460 54.6  
No 363,602 35.2 157,763 43.4 205,839 56.6  
Current smoking         < 0.0001
Yes 187,325 18.1 69,082 36.9 118,243 63.1  
No 847,046 81.9 393,011 46.4 454,035 53.6  
Unmet medical need         < 0.0001
No 936,265 90.5 425,249 45.4 511,016 54.6  
Yes 98,157 9.5 36,874 37.6 61,283 62.4  
Influenza vaccination         < 0.0001
Yes 541,140 52.3 237,704 43.9 303,436 56.1  
No 493,282 47.7 224,419 45.5 268,863 54.5  
Self-perceived health status         < 0.0001
Bad 204,780 19.8 63,679 31.1 141,101 68.9  
Normal 429,471 41.5 189,882 44.2 239,589 55.8  
Good 400,171 38.7 208,562 52.1 191,609 47.9  
  1. a Table 1 shows the results of univariate analyses that examined between years with the incidence of communicable diseases focused on COVID-19 pandemic and washing hands. p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant
  2. b Three groups (white, pink, and blue) based on the international standard classification occupations codes