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Table 5 Adjusted multivariable logistic regression with GEE approach coefficients for participants' characteristics and low BMD risk factors among adults aged ≥ 20 years stratified by the menopausal status in Taiwan (continue)

From: Environmental and personal factors for osteoporosis or osteopenia from a large health check-up database: a retrospective cohort study in Taiwan

  Menopausal women   Non-menopausal women  
Characteristics OR 95%CI P-value OR 95%CI P-value
Age (years) 1.10 (1.09, 1.10) *** 1.05 (1.04, 1.06) ***
Education
  < 9 yr ref    ref   
 9 ~ 14 yr 0.73 (0.69, 0.78) *** 0.23 (0.19, 0.27) ***
 14 ~ 16 yr 0.63 (0.58, 0.69) *** 0.19 (0.16, 0.22) ***
 16 ~ 18 yr 0.62 (0.57, 0.67) *** 0.22 (0.19, 0.27) ***
  >  = 18 yr 0.56 (0.48, 0.66) *** 0.19 (0.16, 0.24) ***
Smoking status
 no, secondhand smoker NA    NA   
 ever smoker and current smoker NA    NA   
Physical activity (intensity)
 light exercise ref    NA   
 mean exercise 0.93 (0.88, 0.99) * NA   
 heavy or violent exercise 0.94 (0.83, 1.06)   NA   
Sleep score 1.01 (1.00, 1.03) * 0.98 (0.96, 1.00)  
Milk
 no; < 1 cup/wk NA    NA   
  >  = 1 cup/wk NA    NA   
Dairy
 no; < 1 slice of yogurt or cheese/wk ref    NA   
  >  = 1 slice of yogurt or cheese/wk 0.97 (0.93, 1.00)   NA   
Vegetarian
 No ref    ref   
 Yes 1.25 (1.14, 1.38) *** 1.26 (1.06, 1.51) **
BMI
 normal ref    ref   
 underweight 1.64 (1.48, 1.82) *** 2.22 (2.03, 2.43) ***
 overweight 0.67 (0.64, 0.70) *** 0.56 (0.51, 0.63) ***
 obesity 0.48 (0.44, 0.52) *** 0.33 (0.27, 0.41) ***
Waistline
 normal ref    ref   
 central obesity 0.90 (0.85, 0.95) *** 1.10 (0.95, 1.29)  
Triglyceride       
 normal ref    ref   
  >  = 150 mg/dl 0.97 (0.93, 1.01)   1.09 (0.98, 1.20)  
Uric acid
 normal ref    ref   
 hyperuricemia 0.87 (0.83, 0.90) *** 0.99 (0.89, 1.09)  
Walkability (park and elementary school; 1 km buffer) 0.997 (0.994, 1.001)   NA   
Solar radiation 0.97 (0.96, 0.99) *** 0.98 (0.96, 1.00)  
Menopause
 No NA    NA   
 Yes NA    NA   
  1. NA: The variable was not selected in the baseline by the stepwise logistic regression
  2. abbreviation: OR Odds ratio
  3. *: P value < 0.05, **: P value < 0.01; ***: P value < 0.001