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Table 4 Adjusted multivariable logistic regression with GEE approach coefficients for participants' characteristics and low BMD risk factors among adults aged ≥ 20 years stratified by sex in Taiwan

From: Environmental and personal factors for osteoporosis or osteopenia from a large health check-up database: a retrospective cohort study in Taiwan

   Total   Sex
Male Female
Characteristics OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value
Age (years) 1.07 (1.07, 1.07) *** 1.04 (1.04, 1.04) *** 1.08 (1.08, 1.08) ***
Education
  < 9 yr ref   ref   ref  
 9 ~ 14 yr 0.56 (0.54, 0.58) *** 0.83 (0.76, 0.90) *** 0.62 (0.59, 0.66) ***
 14 ~ 16 yr 0.45 (0.42, 0.47) *** 0.76 (0.69, 0.82) *** 0.51 (0.48, 0.55) ***
 16 ~ 18 yr 0.44 (0.42, 0.46) *** 0.69 (0.63, 0.75) *** 0.58 (0.54, 0.62) ***
  >  = 18 yr 0.43 (0.41, 0.46) *** 0.66 (0.6, 0.72) *** 0.51 (0.46, 0.57) ***
Smoking status
 no, secondhand smoke ref   ref   NA  
 ever smoker and current smoker 1.04 (1.01, 1.08) * 1.05 (1.01, 1.09) * NA  
Physical activity (intensity)
 light exercise ref   ref    ref  
 mean exercise 0.91 (0.89, 0.94) *** 0.87 (0.84, 0.90) *** 0.93 (0.88, 0.97) **
 heavy or violent exercise 0.93 (0.89, 0.97) ** 0.85 (0.81, 0.90) *** 0.91 (0.83, 1.00)  
Sleep score 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) *** 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) *** NA  
Milk
 no; < 1 cup/wk NA   ref    NA  
  >  = 1 cup/wk NA   0.96 (0.93, 0.99) ** NA  
Dairy
 no; < 1 slice of yogurt or cheese/wk ref   NA   ref  
  >  = 1 slice of yogurt or cheese/wk 0.97 (0.95, 0.99) *** NA   0.97 (0.94, 1)  
Vegetarian
 No ref   ref   ref  
 Yes 1.32 (1.25, 1.39) *** 1.26 (1.15, 1.39) *** 1.29 (1.2, 1.4) ***
BMI
 normal ref   ref   ref  
 underweight 1.72 (1.64, 1.81) *** 2.21 (2, 2.45) *** 2.19 (2.04, 2.34) ***
 overweight 0.65 (0.63, 0.67) *** 0.63 (0.6, 0.65) *** 0.61 (0.58, 0.64) ***
 obesity 0.48 (0.46, 0.5) *** 0.45 (0.43, 0.48) *** 0.41 (0.39, 0.44) ***
Waistline
 normal ref   NA   NA  
 central obesity 0.99 (0.96, 1.03)   NA   NA  
Triglyceride
 normal ref   NA   NA  
  >  = 150 mg/dl 1.04 (1.01, 1.06) ** NA   NA  
Uric acid
 normal ref   ref   ref  
 hyperuricemia 0.93 (0.91, 0.95) *** 0.89 (0.87, 0.92) *** 0.86 (0.82, 0.89) ***
Walkability (park and elementary school; 1 km buffer) 1.00 (0.995, 0.999) *** 0.99 (0.99, 0.996) *** 1.00 (0.996, 1.002)  
Solar radiation 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) *** 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) ** 0.97 (0.96, 0.99) ***
Menopause
 No NA   NA   ref  
 Yes NA   NA   3.81 (3.56, 4.07) ***