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Table 3 Odds ratios for low BMD (lumbar spine T-score < -1 vs. T ≥ -1) for participants’ characteristics from univariate logistic regression models at the baseline

From: Environmental and personal factors for osteoporosis or osteopenia from a large health check-up database: a retrospective cohort study in Taiwan

Characteristics Odds Ratio 95%CI P-value
Age (years) 1.082 (1.081, 1.084) ***
Gender
 Male ref   
 Female 1.42 (1.38, 1.46) ***
Education
  < 9 yr ref   
 9—14 yr 0.22 (0.21, 0.23) ***
 14–16 yr 0.12 (0.11, 0.12) ***
 16–18 yr 0.09 (0.09, 0.09) ***
  >  = 18 yr 0.08 (0.08, 0.09) ***
Smoking status
 no, secondhand smoker ref   
 ever smoker and current smoker 0.81 (0.78, 0.84) ***
Physical activity (intensity)
 light exercise ref   
 mean exercise 0.54 (0.52, 0.56) ***
 heavy or violent exercise 0.57 (0.54, 0.61) ***
Sleep score 0.86 (0.85, 0.87) ***
Milk
 no; < 1 cup/wk ref   
  >  = 1 cup/wk 0.99 (0.96, 1.02)  
Dairy
 no; < 1 slice of yogurt or cheese/wk ref   
  >  = 1 slice of yogurt or cheese/wk 0.63 (0.61, 0.64) ***
Vegetarian
 No ref   
 Yes 2.40 (2.25, 2.57) ***
BMI
 normal ref   
 underweight 1.21 (1.15, 1.27) ***
 overweight 0.83 (0.80, 0.86) ***
 obesity 0.62 (0.59, 0.65) ***
Waistline
 normal ref   
 central obesity 1.11 (1.07, 1.16) ***
Triglyceride
 normal ref   
  >  = 150 mg/dl 1.22 (1.18, 1.26) ***
Uric acid
 normal ref   
 hyperuricemia 0.85 (0.83, 0.89) ***
Walkability (park and elementary school; 1 km buffer) 0.986 (0.984, 0.988) ***
Annual average solar radiation 1.01 (1.01, 1.02) ***