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Table 4 Odds ratios and (95%CIs) for poor self-rated health in Japanese and Egyptian civil workers according to gender-and country-specific categories of conflicts between work and family

From: A comparative study of the work-family conflicts prevalence, their sociodemographic, family, and work attributes, and their relation to the self-reported health status in Japanese and Egyptian civil workers

  Japan Egypt
Case/total Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Case/total Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Women 308/1596     273/1614    
Family-to-work conflict (FWC)
  Weak 116/746 1.00 1.00 1.00 95/690 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Moderate 115/611 1.34 (0.99–2.81) 1.59 (1.15–2.20) 1.61 (1.16–2.24) 121/717 1.33 (0.99–1.79) 1.32 (0.97–1.77) 1.30 (0.96–1.76)
  Strong 77/239 2.91 (2.02–4.21) 4.05 (2.65–6.18) 4.08 (2.66–6.27) 57/207 2.59 (1.77–3.79) 2.62 (1.77–3.86) 2.57 (1.73–3.82)
  p-trend    < 0.0001  < 0.0001  < 0.0001    < 0.0001  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
Work-to-family conflict ( WFC)
  Weak 67/562 1.00 1.00 1.00 70/557 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Moderate 171/835 2.04 (1.49–2.80) 2.04 (1.48–2.81) 2.20 (1.58–3.07) 114/664 1.60 (1.15–2.23) 1.63 (1.17–2.27) 1.61 (1.14–2.26)
  Strong 70/199 4.56 (3.05–6.84) 4.95 (3.27–7.49) 5.45 (3.47–8.54) 89/393 2.46 (1.71–3.54) 2.59 (1.79–3.75) 2.63 (1.79–3.88)
  P-trend    < 0.0001  < 0.0001  < 0.0001    < 0.0001  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
Total work-family conflicts (W–F–Cs)
  Weak 122/859 1.00 1.00 1.00 101/752 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Moderate 92/447 1.73 (1.26–2.37) 1.88 (1.35–2.61) 1.88 (1.34–2.62) 77/479 1.34 (0.96–1.85) 1.36 (0.98–1.90) 1.37 (0.98–1.92)
  Strong 94/290 3.36 (2.39–4.73) 4.19 (2.89–6.08) 4.28 (2.91–6.30) 95/383 2.43 (1.75–3.36) 2.47 (1.78–3.44) 2.46 (1.75–3.47)
  p-trend    < 0.0001  < 0.0001  < 0.0001    < 0.0001  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
Age
   <  = 30 years 99/505 1.00 1.00 1.00 69/454 1.00 1.00 1.00
  31–40 years 58/316 0.64 (0.43–0.94) 0.79 (0.51–1.20) 0.79 (0.49–1.16) 80/530 1.10 (0.77–1.58) 1.09 (0.72–1.63) 1.08 (0.71–1.65)
  41–50 years 94/502 0.65 (0.46–0.92) 0.84 (0.57–1.26) 0.77 (0.51–1.16) 70/379 1.40 (0.96–2.05) 1.31 (0.84–2.05) 1.32 (0.83–2.09)
   > 50 years 57/273 0.89 (0.59–1.33) 0.98 (0.60–1.61) 0.91 (0.55–1.51) 54/251 1.83 (1.20–2.77) 1.48 (0.89–2.46) 1.51 (0.89–2.56)
  p-trend   0.41 0.92 0.92   0.002 0.09 0.08
Smoking habit
  Never 288/1504 1.00 1.00 1.00 272/1604 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Former 14/59 1.25 (0.66–2.38) 1.23 (0.63–2.39) 1.26 (0.63–2.52) 1/5 1.40 (0.15–12.8) 1.39 (0.15–13.0) 1.26 (0.13–12.2)
  Current 6/33 0.99 (0.40–2.48) 0.92 (0.37–2.31) 1.02 (0.40–2.59) 0/5 ––––- ––––- ––––-
  p-trend   0.67 0.60 0.60   0.49 0.49 0.47
Alcohol drinking habit
  Never 200/1065 1.00 1.00 1.00 NA NA NA NA
  Former 10/32 0.93 (0.71–1.23) 0.90 (0.68–1.20) 0.90 (0.68–1.21) NA NA NA NA
  Current 98/499 1.69 (0.75–3.81) 2.02 (0.88–4.67) 2.06 (0.88–4.78) NA NA NA NA
  p-trend   0.62 0.40 0.40   NA NA NA
Physical activity in MET units
  Q1 44/258 1.00 1.00 1.00 60/361 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Q2 53/325 1.02 (0.64–1.61) 1.00 (0.71–1.70) 1.01 (0.72–1.71) 58/340 1.12 (0.76–1.65) 1.10 (0.74–1.63) 1.06 (0.71–1.58)
  Q3 44/286 0.92 (0.79–1.22) 0.90 (0.77–1.21) 0.90 (0.76–1.23) 43/237 0.99 (0.69–1.44) 0.99 (0.68–1.44) 0.95 (0.65–1.40)
  Q4 41/228 1.10 (0.82–1.54) 1.08 (0.78–1.45) 1.09 (0.78–1.44) 52/285 0.81 (0.56–1.16) 0.79 (0.55–1.14) 0.77 (0.53–1.12)
  p-trend   0.45 0.67 0.65   0.46 0.38 0.32
Men 563/3266     83/1497    
Family-to-work conflict (FWC)
  Weak 232/1874 1.00 1.00 1.00 15/563 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Moderate 242/1137 1.99 (1.63–2.44) 2.47 (1.99–3.07) 2.38 (1.91–2.96) 32/592 1.19 (0.72–1.96) 1.18 (0.71–1.98) 1.15 (0.68–1.94)
  Strong 89/255 3.95 (2.93–5.34) 5.35 (3.88–7.47) 5.16 (3.73–7.15) 36/342 2.87 (1.55–5.33) 3.09 (1.64–5.78) 2.77 (1.45–5.30)
  p-trend    < 0.0001  < 0.0001  < 0.0001    < 0.0001  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
Work-to-family conflict ( WFC)
  Weak 143/1428 1.00 1.00 1.00 36/773 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Moderate 310/1593 2.22 (1.79–2.75) 2.48 (1.99–3.09) 2.35 (1.88–2.95) 30/577 2.21 (1.18–4.16) 2.32 (1.22–4.42) 2.33 (1.21–4.47)
  Strong 110/245 7.51 (5.51–10.24) 9.05 (6.56–12.49) 8.45 (6.01–11.87) 17/147 5.01 (2.63–9.54) 5.37 (2.78–9.40) 5.06 (2.52–10.17)
  P-trend    < 0.0001  < 0.0001  < 0.0001    < 0.0001  < 0.0001 0.009
Total work-family conflicts (W–F–Cs)
  Weak 252/2103 1.00 1.00 1.00 25/787 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Moderate 179/821 2.12 (1.71–2.63) 2.51 (2.00–3.14) 2.35 (1.87–2.95) 32/424 2.80 (1.62–4.84) 2.84 (1.63–4.95) 2.79 (1.58–4.92)
  Strong 132/342 4.85 (3.73–6.29) 6.36 (4.81–8.41) 6.01 (4.50–8.01) 26/286 3.26 (1.82–5.84) 3.47 (1.92–6.29) 3.11 (1.67–5.80)
  P-trend    < 0.0001  < 0.0001  < 0.0001    < 0.0001  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
Age
    <  = 30 years 94/559 1.00 1.00 1.00 12/202 1.00 1.00 1.00
  31–40 years 90/512 0.72 (0.52–1.01) 1.08 (0.75–1.55) 1.07 (0.75–1.54) 18/448 0.66 (0.31–1.42) 1.09 (0.42–2.78) 1.03 (0.39–2.67)
  41–50 years 193/1081 0.83 (0.62–1.10) 1.40 (1.00–1.94) 1.40 (1.00–1.96) 29/387 1.45 (0.70–2.98) 2.40 (0.91–6.37) 2.47 (0.92–6.64)
    > 50 years 186/1114 0.88 (0.66–1.18) 1.39 (0.98–1.98) 1.48 (1.03–2.13) 24/460 1.01 (0.47–2.15) 1.51 (0.53–4.25) 1.47 (0.51–4.23)
  p-trend   0.58 0.009 0.009   0.44 0.43 0.45
Smoking habit
  Never 364/2108 1.00 1.00 1.00 46/916 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Former 126/752 1.00 (0.79–1.26) 1.09 (0.85–1.38) 1.09 (0.86–1.40) 23/443 1.08 (0.47–1.83) 1.02 (0.60–1.75) 1.02 (0.59–1.75)
  Current 73/406 1.09 (0.81–1.45) 1.10 (0.82–1.48) 1.13 (0.84–1.52) 14/138 2.22 (1.15–4.29) 2.24 (1.15–4.36) 2.27 (1.16–4.45)
  p-trend   0.63 0.43 0.56   0.07 0.09 0.08
Alcohol drinking habit
  Never 450/2712 1.00 1.00 1.00 NA NA NA NA
  Former 14/52 0.82 (0.64–1.80) 0.85 (0.66–1.10) 0.84 (0.65–1.09) NA NA NA NA
  Current 99/502 1.50 (0.76–2.95) 1.55 (0.78–3.09) 1.60 (0.80–3.20) NA NA NA NA
  p-trend   0.52 0.65 0.65   NA NA NA
Physical activity in MET units
  Q1 76/500 1.00 1.00 1.00 16/276 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Q2 88/627 0.99 (0.76–1.28) 0.98 (0.75–1.28) 0.98 (0.75–1.28) 13/280 1.20 (0.61–2.35) 1.23 (0.63–2.42) 1.21 (0.61–2.40)
  Q3 96/572 1.20 (0.90–1.58) 1.20 (0.90–1.59) 1.18 (0.89–1.58) 14/210 0.79 (0.43–1.48) 0.77 (0.41–1.45) 0.76 (0.40–1.45)
  Q4 82/419 0.92 (0.70–1.20) 0.91 (0.70–1.20) 0.90 (0.61–1.39) 16/345 0.90 (0.50–1.63) 0.94 (0.51–1.63) 0.95 (0.51–1.75)
  p-trend   0.17 0.20 0.20   0.67 0.73 0.71
  1. Model 1: Adjusted for education
  2. Model 2: Adjusted further for family factors (marital status, family structure, number of family members and the presence of family members below 14 years old)
  3. Model 3: Adjusted further for work factors (occupation, job hours per day, time to commute to work, shift work, working overtime or extra job)