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Table 1 Distribution of demographic, behavioural, and health status of study participants by frailty status (n = 1458)

From: Examining the independent and interactive association of physical activity and sedentary behaviour with frailty in Chinese community-dwelling older adults

Characteristics Total (n = 1458) Non-frail (n = 1163) Frail (n = 295) t/x2 P value
Age (year, mean ± SD) 72.38 ± 7.28 71.37 ± 6.68 76.37 ± 8.16 −9.040 < 0.0001
Gender (n, %)     1.734 0.188
 Male 585 (40.12) 477 (41.00) 108 (36.47)   
 Female 873 (59.88) 686 (59.00) 187 (63.53)   
Education level (n, %)     17.215 0.002
 Primary school and below 270 (18.49) 192 (16.52) 78 (26.27)   
 Middle school 383 (26.27) 300 (25.77) 83 (28.24)   
 High school 474 (32.54) 398 (34.23) 76 (25.88)   
 College 328 (22.46) 270 (23.18) 58 (19.61)   
 Master’s degree and above 3 (0.24) 3 (0.30) 0 (0.00)   
Living status (n, %)     75.185 < 0.0001
 Living with family 1225 (84.05) 1024 (88.05) 201 (68.14)   
 Living with others 138 (9.44) 69 (5.97) 69 (23.39)   
 Living alone 95 (6.51) 70 (5.98) 25 (8.47)   
Marital status (n, %)     34.620 < 0.0001
 Married 1132 (77.62) 943 (81.08) 189 (64.07)   
 Widowed 303 (20.79) 204 (17.54) 99 (33.56)   
 Divorced or other 23 (1.59) 16 (1.38) 7 (2.37)   
Occupations (n, %)     0.668 0.716
 Civil servants or professional technicians in state units 776 (53.25) 626 (53.83) 150 (50.98)   
 Workers, commercial, service or freelance workers 552 (37.86) 435 (37.41) 117 (39.61)   
 Manual or unemployed 130 (8.89) 102 (8.76) 28 (9.41)   
Average monthly income (n, %)     11.906 0.008
 <3000 RMB 485 (33.25) 394 (33.88) 91 (30.85)   
 3000 ~ 6000 RMB 826 (56.67) 657 (56.49) 169 (57.29)   
 6000 ~ 10,000 RMB 139 (9.52) 110 (9.46) 29 (9.83)   
 >10,000 RMB 8 (0.56) 2 (0.17) 6 (2.03)   
Main medical payment methods (n, %)     0.263 0.608
 All at one’s own expense 47 (3.25) 39 (3.38) 8 (2.75)   
 Partial or full payment of medical insurance 1411 (96.75) 1124 (96.62) 287 (97.25)   
Smoking status (n, %)     0.166 0.920
 Never 1238 (84.92) 988 (84.98) 250 (84.71)   
 Current 112 (7.70) 88 (7.56) 24 (8.24)   
 Former 108 (7.38) 87 (7.46) 21 (7.06)   
Drinking status (n, %)     6.715 0.035
 Never 1259 (86.35) 993 (85.38) 266 (90.17)   
 Current 149 (10.24) 132 (11.35) 17 (5.76)   
 Former 50 (3.41) 38 (3.27) 12 (4.07)   
Comorbidity (n, mean ± SD) 2.23 ± 1.79 1.99 ± 1.63 3.18 ± 2.05 −8.590 < 0.0001
Polypharmacy (n, mean ± SD) 3.27 ± 2.88 2.80 ± 2.62 5.11 ± 3.11 −10.910 < 0.0001
Physical activity (n, %)     38.016 < 0.0001
 Light 235 (16.11) 154 (13.23) 81 (27.45)   
 Moderate 922 (63.25) 743 (63.88) 179 (60.78)   
 Vigorous 301 (20.63) 266 (22.89) 35 (11.76)   
MET-h/day (mean ± SD) 4.91 ± 4.24 5.24 ± 4.35 3.59 ± 3.45 6.480 < 0.0001
Sitting time (n, %)     31.719 < 0.0001
  <  4 h/day 583 (40.00) 499 (42.89) 84 (28.63)   
 4–6 h/day 467 (32.06) 361 (31.04) 106 (36.08)   
 6–8 h/day 272 (18.65) 218 (18.71) 54 (18.43)   
  ≥ 8 h/day 136 (9.29) 86 (7.36) 50 (16.86)   
Sitting time (h/day, mean ± SD) 4.64 ± 2.30 4.51 ± 2.22 5.16 ± 2.52 −3.780 < 0.0001
BMI (kg/m2, mean ± SD) 24.60 ± 3.16 24.62 ± 3.07 24.51 ± 3.49 0.490 0.626
Frailty index (mean ± SD) 0.14 ± 0.07 0.11 ± 0.04 0.25 ± 0.06 −37.310 < 0.0001