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Table 2 Weighted Percentage distribution of anaemia among women by background characteristic in West Bengal and Bangladesh: NFHS 2015-16 and BDHS 2011

From: Identifying risk factors in explaining women’s anaemia in limited resource areas: evidence from West Bengal of India and Bangladesh

Background characteristics West Bengal Bangladesh
N % Chi n % Chi
Demographic and health factors
Age    12.81 ***    
  Below 20 1,591 62.50 208 40.13 16.09 ***
  20–24 1,654 61.74 383 39.88
  25–29 1521 59.79 355 38.35
  30&above 1,458 64.47 1,253 44.11
Body mass index    131.44 ***    92.93 ***
  Thin 2,317 68.63 694 51.29
  Normal 5,787 62.67 1,241 41.23
  Overweight or Obese 1,818 57.76 265 29.97
Current contraceptive method    122.32 ***    26.16 ***
  Not using 3,983 62.32 903 44.53
  Female sterilisation 2,763 68.49 124 47.21
  Pill/injection/IUD 1,554 56.63 773 37.78
  Othersa 1,622 62.66 398 43.94
Children ever born    39.74 ***    22.93 ***
  Child 2,252 59.64 153 36.42
  1–2 5,111 63.06 905 38.84
  2 +  2,559 65.99 1,140 45.74
Socioeconomic factors
Education    88.04 ***    31.99 ***
  Illiterate/primary 4,362 66.93 1,386 45.19
  Secondary 4,900 60.68 702 38.51
  Higher 661 56.66 111 31.33
Religion    65.83 ***    19.45 ***
  Hindu 7,582 65.19 264 50.42
  Muslim 2,340 56.68 1,935 40.98
Wealth    141.56 ***    58.34 ***
  Poor 5,451 66.46 965 48.42
  Middle 2,126 61.11 430 42.04
  Rich 2,345 57.52 804 36.07
Source of drinking water
  Groundwater 7,025 65.62 35.48 *** 1,804 42.70 19.56 ***
  Distributed water 2,796 60.15   180 30.98  
  Others 212 51.70   195 41.49  
Practicing open defecation    54.15 ***    15.45 ***
  Yes 2,700 69.91 95 53.05
  No 7,223 60.67 2,104 41.53
Has own land for agriculture    62.90 ***    3.81 *
  No 6,663 61.42 1,102 40.77
  Yes 3,259 66.38 1,097 43.15
Place of residence    93.44 ***    21.72 ***
  Urban 2,899 58.58 487 35.56
  Rural 7,024 64.97 1,712 44.18
Food related factors
Food security
  Secure NA NA   1,386 40.88 11.23 ***
  Insecure NA NA   832 43.76  
Consume pulses    9.50 ***    
  Daily 4,046 61.96   NA NA  
  Never/weekly/occasionally 5,877 63.97   NA NA  
Consume fruits       
  Daily 889 55.27   NA NA  
  Weekly 3,512 62.80 53.39 *** NA NA  
 Never/occasionally 5,521 64.52     
Consume chicken or meat     NA NA  
  Daily/ weekly 5,009 61.92   NA NA  
  Occasionally 4,612 64.92 46.36 *** NA NA  
  Never 302 67.65     
  1. Significant level; *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01
  2. aOther category of Contraceptive use; condom, male sterilization, rhythm/periodic abstinence, withdrawal, lactation amenorrhea, female condom and foam or jelly