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Table 1 Characteristics of 24 targeted testing and linkage to care studies of viral blood-borne infections among persons who experience homelessness in the US

From: Viral blood-borne infections testing and linkage to care cascade among persons who experience homelessness in the United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Setting Study design Recruitment method Target population Data collection Test (specimen) by disease
HBV HCV HIV
Anaya 2010 [22] Los Angeles, CA Double-Arm cohort Shelter-based VA-eligible persons who experience homelessness 2006–2007 Rapid-Ab or Ab (mixed)
Anaya 2015 [23] Los Angeles, CA Single-Arm cohort Shelter-based Adults who experience homelessness 2009–2011 Rapid-Ab + conf (oral fluid)
Bell 2003 [24] New York, City, NY Single-Arm cohort Outreach Youth who experience homelessness 1998–2000 Ab (blood)
Benitez 2020 [25] Los Angeles, CA Retrospective study Healthcare facility-based (Los Angeles Christian Health Centers) Predominantly persons who experience homelessness including both unsheltered persons and those who reside in supervised shelters or transitional housing at night who are at risk for HIV, drug use 2016–2019 Non-rapid Ab (blood)
Bowles 2008 [26] Boston, MA; Chicago, IL; Washington, DC; Kansas City, MO; Detroit, MI Single-Arm cohort Shelter-based HIV-unaware adults who experience homelessness 2004–2006 Rapid-Ab (mixed)
Boyce 2009 [27] Honolulu County, HI Cross-sectional Shelter-based Adults who experience homelessness 2006–2006 HBsAg (blood) Ab (blood)
Bucher 2007 [28] San Francisco, CA Single-Arm cohort SROs, shelters, and free meal programs Persons who experience homelessness & unstably housed adults 2003–2004 Rapid-Ab + conf (oral fluid)
Caton 2013 [29] New York City, NY Cross-sectional Shelter-based Women who experience homelessness 2007–2008 Ab (oral fluid)
Gelberg 2012 [30] Los Angeles, CA Single-Arm cohort Shelters and meal programs Adults who experience homelessness 2003–2004 Ab (blood) Ab (blood)
Fuster & Gelberg 2019 [14] Los Angeles, CA Single-Arm cohort Other venue based (service programs, shelter programs, & meal programs) Participants who tested seropositive for HIV/HCV/HBV from the baseline sample 2003–2004 (9 months) Rapid Ab (blood) Rapid Ab (blood) Ag detection (blood)
Grimley 2006 [21] Alabama Cross-sectional Shelter-based Adults who experience homelessness Ab (oral fluid)
Hall 2004 [31] San Francisco, CA Single-Arm cohort SROs, facilities maintaining 73% of shelter beds and venues providing 88% of free lunches in the city Unstably housed adults with HIV 1996–2000 Ab (blood)
Hooshyar 2014 [32] Dallas, Texoma, and Fort Worth, TX Cross-sectional Outreach VA-eligible adults who experience homelessness 2011–2011 Rapid-Ab (NR)
Khalili 2019 [33] San Francisco, CA; Minneapolis, MN Single-Arm cohort Shelter-based Clients who experience homelessness in homeless shelters Not reported (conference abstract) Rapid Ab (blood)
Klinkenberg 2003 [5] St. Louis, MO Unclear Outreach and referral (hospitals, social service agencies, shelters, soup kitchens, street) Adults who experience homelessness with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorders 2000–2000 Ab (blood) Ab (mixed)
Magura 2000 [34] New York City, NY Unclear, possibly mixed Soup kitchens Soup kitchen guests 1997–1997 HBsAg (blood) Ab (mixed)
Page 2017 [35] San Francisco, CA Cross-sectional Outreach (free meal programs, homeless shelters, and low-cost single room occupancy hotels) Persons who experience homelessness and unstably housed adult women 2008–2010 Ag detection (blood) Ag detection (blood)
Preston 2016 [36] New Orleans, LA Single-Arm cohort Shelter-based Adults who experience homelessness Not reported (conference abstract) Rapid-Ab (NR)
Robbins 2010 [37] San Francisco, CA Cross-sectional Shelters and "targeted" sampling, which is not defined in the paper Adult who experiences homelessness PWID 2003–2005 Ab (mixed)
Rosenblum 2001 [38] New York City, NY Cross-sectional Healthcare facility-based Adults who experience homelessness 1997–1998 Ab
(blood)
Rapid-Ab or Ab
(NR)
Schwarz 2008 [39] Baltimore, MD Single-Arm cohort Primarily shelters (11% recruited from soup kitchens and adult IDU clinics.) Parents with children who experience homelessness 2001–2004 Ab + Ag (blood)
Sena 2016 [40] Durham, NC Cross-sectional Healthcare facility-based Adults with HCV risk 2012–2014 Ab + NAAT (blood)
Stewart 2020 [41] North Seattle, WA Retrospective abstraction of electronic medical record data Healthcare facility-based (SHE clinic) Women with unstable housing (i.e.; experiencing homelessness) who reported exchanging sex for money or nonmonetary items and who inject drugs 2018 (4 months) NA detection (endocervical swab samples)
Tsu 2002 [42] Portland, OR Double-Arm cohort Outreach Youth with HIV risk 1998–1999 Ab (oral fluid)
  1. Notes: Ab antibody, Ag antigen, conf confirmation, HBsAg Hepatitis B surface antigen, IDU injection drug user, NA not Applicable, NR not reported, PWID people who inject drugs, SHE clinic: safe. Healthy. Empowered clinic, SRO single resident occupancy, VA Veterans Administration