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Table 2 Results of fully adjusted multilevel models for associations between HRB clustering and episodic memory trajectories by gender in the USA and Englanda

From: Comparing relationships between health-related behaviour clustering and episodic memory trajectories in the United States of America and England: a longitudinal study

Men USA (N = 7354) England (N = 3769)
Fixed effects b (95%CI) P-value b (95%CI) P-value
Intercept 11.79 (11.55, 12.02)  < 0.001 12.07 (11.73, 12.41)  < 0.001
Age -0.07 (-0.08, -0.06)  < 0.001 -0.15 (-0.17, -0.14)  < 0.001
Age2 -0.0033 (-0.0037, -0.0028)  < 0.001 -0.006 (-0.007, -0.004)  < 0.001
HRB clusters
 Multi-HRB cluster Reference   Reference  
 Inactive cluster -0.18 (-0.33, -0.04) 0.010 -0.87 (-1.15, -0.59)  < 0.001
 Smoking cluster -0.33 (-0.47, -0.20)  < 0.001 - -
Interactions: HRB clustering x age
 Inactive cluster 0.01 (0.001, 0.03) 0.029 -0.003 (-0.03, 0.02) 0.789
 Smoking cluster -0.005 (-0.02, 0.01) 0.372 -  
Random effects S.D. (95%CIs)   S.D. (95%CIs)  
Level 1: residual 2.23 (2.21, 2.25)   2.26 (2.21, 2.31)  
Level 2: intercept 1.89 (1.84, 1.95)   2.14 (2.05, 2.23)  
Level 2: age 0.02 (0.003, 0.11)   0.08 (0.06, 0.10)  
Women USA (N = 10,396)   England (N = 4722)  
Fixed effects b (95%CIs) P-values b (95%CIs) P-values
Intercept 12.57 (12.34, 12.80)  < 0.001 13.15 (12.73, 13.57)  < 0.001
Age -0.11 (-0.12, -0.10)  < 0.001 -0.14 (-0.16, -0.13)  < 0.001
Age2 -0.0042 (-0.0046, -0.0038)  < 0.001 -0.006 (-0.007, -0.005)  < 0.001
HRB clustering
 Multi-HRB cluster Reference   Reference  
 Inactive cluster -0.12 (-0.24, -0.001) 0.048 0.07 (-0.15, 0.29) 0.523
 Ex-smoking cluster 0.42 (0.31, 0.53)  < 0.001 -1.36 (-1.67, -1.06)  < 0.001
Interactions: HRB clustering x age
 Inactive cluster -0.003 (-0.01, 0.01) 0.564 0.003 (-0.02, 0.02) 0.776
 Ex-smoking cluster 0.003 (-0.007, 0.01) 0.543 -0.03 (-0.05, 0.001) 0.058
Random effects S.D. (95%CIs)   S.D. (95%CIs)  
Level 1: residual 2.35 (2.33, 2.37)   2.32 (2.27, 2.38)  
Level 2: intercept 1.90 (1.85, 1.95)   2.26 (2.16, 2.36)  
Level 2: age 0.05 (0.04, 0.07)   0.05 (0.02, 0.10)  
  1. aEach model with a quadratic trend over age was adjusted for birth cohort, marital status, education, wealth, long-term conditions and the interaction between age and HRB clustering.
  2. 95%CI 95% Confidence interval