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Table 4 Cognitive and socio-emotional caregiving practices for children under 59 months in Dhanusha district

From: Feeding, caregiving practices, and developmental delay among children under five in lowland Nepal: a community-based cross-sectional survey

Indicators 7–23 months 24–59 months 7–59 months
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Access to children’s books 412 940 1352
 Has less than three children’s books 376 (91.3) 833 (93.9) 1259 (93.1)
 Has three or more children’s books 36 (8.7) 57 (6.1) 93 (6.9)
Types of toys 412 940 1352
 Homemade toys 17 (4.5) 134 (14.6) 151 (11.6)
 Toys from shop 277 (73.5) 623 (67.7) 900 (69.4)
 Household objects used as toys 322 (85.4) 852 (92.6) 1174 (90.5)
Access to toys 412 940 1352
 Has less than two toys 181 (43.9) 306 (32.6) 487 (36.0)
 Has two or more toys 231 (56.1) 634 (67.5) 865 (64.0)
Support for learning
Child read to 378 921 1299
 No 370 (98) 750 (81.4) 1120 (86.2)
 Yes 8 (2.1) 171 (18.6) 179 (13.8)
Child told stories 378 919 1297
 No 349 (92.3) 634 (69) 983 (75.8)
 Yes 29 (7.7) 285 (31) 314 (24.2)
Child sung to 378 921 1299
 No 321 (84.9) 619 (67.2) 940 (72.4)
 Yes 57 (15.1) 302 (32.8) 359 (27.6)
Child taken outside 377 920 1297
 No 163 (43.2) 291 (31.6) 454 (35)
 Yes 214 (56.8) 629 (68.4) 843 (65)
Child engaged in playing 378 920 1298
 No 302 (79.9) 587 (63.8) 889 (68.5)
 Yes 76 (20.1) 333 (36.2) 409 (31.5)
Child engaged in counting or drawing 378 921 1299
 No 361 (95.5) 672 (73) 1033 (79.5)
 Yes 17 (4.5) 249 (27) 266 (20.5)
Early stimulation and responsive caregiving a 412 940 1352
 No 401 (97.3) 804 (85.3) 1205 (89.1)
 Yes 11 (2.7) 136 (14.5) 147 (10.9)
Adequate supervision b 378 921 1299
 No 83 (22) 300 (32.6) 383 (29.5)
 Yes 295 (78) 621 (67.4) 916 (70.5)
  1. aMother/Father/Adult (adult include maternal and paternal grandparents) has engaged with children in four or more support for learning activities in the last three days
  2. bChildren were not left alone or in the company of another child younger than 10 years for more than one hour at least once in the previous week