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Table 1 Baseline descriptions (N = 9402)

From: Urban-rural disparities in the healthy ageing trajectory in China: a population-based study

  Rural(n = 6167) Urban(n = 3235) P value
1.socioeconomic background
Age 58.00 (45.00–93.00) 57.00 (45.00–95.00) 0.239
Gender    0.066
  Male 2818(45.69%) 1414(43.71%)  
  Female 3349(54.31%) 1821(56.29%)  
Educational level    < 0.001
  Less than lower secondary 5755(93.32%) 2621(81.02%)  
  upper secondary & vocational 396(6.42%) 509(15.73%)  
  tertiary 16(0.26%) 105(3.25%)  
Marital status    0.653
  Divorced or widowed 661(10.72%) 337(10.42%)  
  Married 5506(89.28%) 2898(89.58%)  
Household per capita consumption
  Low 2203 (40.99%) 590 (21.91%) < 0.001
  Low-to-middle 1581 (29.42%) 617 (22.91%)  
  Middle 1053 (19.59%) 770 (28.59%)  
  High 537 (9.99%) 716 (26.59%)  
Public health insurance coverage    < 0.001
  Not covered 295(4.80%) 278(8.62%)  
  Covered 5857(95.20%) 2946(91.38%)  
Current work status    < 0.001
  Not working 1110(18.06%) 1382(42.92%)  
  Working 5036(81.94%) 1838(57.08%)  
Chronic condition    0.317
  None 1810(29.35%) 908(28.07%)  
  Yes 1844(29.90%) 962(29.74%)  
  Morbidity 2513(40.75%) 1365(42.19%)  
2.Family characteristics
Gave care to grandchildren    < 0.001
  None 2289(51.66%) 854(42.74%)  
  Yes 2142(48.34%) 1144(57.26%)  
Live near children    < 0.001
  None 516(8.53%) 199(6.28%)  
  Yes 5530(91.47%) 2969(93.72%)  
Weekly contact with children    < 0.001
  None 544 (8.98%) 136 (4.29%)  
  Yes 5515(91.02%) 3035 (95.71%)  
Gave money to children    0.029
  None 4980(81.04%) 2673(82.88%)  
  Yes 1165(18.96%) 552(17.12%)  
Received money from children    < 0.001
  None 3745(60.90%) 2341(72.45%)  
  Yes 2404(39.10%) 890(27.55%)  
3.Lifestyle
Alcohol intake    0.524
  Do not drink 4161(67.48%) 2204(68.13%)  
  Drink 2005(32.52%) 1031(31.87%)  
Smoking status    < 0.001
  Never 3750(62.02%) 2094(65.60%)  
  Quit now 455(7.53%) 254(7.96%)  
  Still 1841(30.45%) 844(26.44%)  
Social participation    < 0.001
  None 3325(53.92%) 1566(48.42%)  
  Yes 2841(46.08%) 1668(51.58%)  
Physical Examination    < 0.001
  None 3252(52.75%) 1438(44.48%)  
  Yes 2913(47.25%) 1795(55.52%)  
  1. Note: Age was described by median (min-max), and the variance was tested by Wilcoxon rank test because of the abnormal distribution