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Table 2 Univariate analysis of low back pain among occupational groups in key industries in China, 2018–2020

From: Prevalence and risk factors analysis for low back pain among occupational groups in key industries of China

Variables   Low Back Pain
Number of workers Case Percentage (%) COR(95% CI)
Individual risk factors
 Gender     
  Men 37,240 5514 14.8 1
  Women 20,261 3935 19.4 1.387(1.326–1.451)*
 Age (years)
  <25 12,085 1462 12.1 1
  25- 26,139 4577 17.5 1.542(1.448–1.643) *
  35- 12,301 2238 18.2 1.616(1.505–1.735) *
  45- 5802 964 16.6 1.448(1.326–1.581) *
  55- 1174 208 17.7 1.565(1.334–1.835) *
 Working age (years)
  <2 16,061 1886 11.7 1
  2- 12,072 1857 15.4 1.366(1.275–1.464) *
  4- 7299 1292 17.7 1.617(1.497–1.746) *
  6- 9717 1853 19.1 1.771(1.652–1.899) *
  8- 12,352 2561 20.7 1.966(1.843–2.098) *
 Education level
  Junior high school 15,369 2225 14.5 1
  Senior high school 21,901 3399 15.5 1.085(1.024–1.150) *
  University degree 19,231 3626 18.9 1.373(1.296–1.454) *
  Graduate degree 1000 199 19.9 1.468(1.249–1.725) *
 Body mass index (BMI)
  <18.5 6006 908 15.1 1
  18.5- 39,328 6414 16.3 1.094(1.015–1.180) *
  25- 12,167 2127 17.5 1.189(1.093–1.295) *
 Smoking
  No 36,527 6074 16.6 1
  Occasionally 10,111 1453 14.4 0.841(0.791–0.895) *
  Frequently 10,863 1922 17.7 1.078(1.019–1.140) *
 physical exercise
  No 17,947 3375 18.8 1
  Occasionally 32,797 5116 15.6 0.798(0.761–0.837) *
  Frequently 6757 958 14.2 0.713(0.660–0.771) *
Workplace risk factor
 Standing often at work
  No 8758 1284 14.7 1
  Yes 48,743 8165 16.8 1.171(1.099–1.248) *
 Sitting often at work
  No 25,385 4134 16.3 1
  Yes 32,116 5315 16.5 1.019(0.975–1.066)
 Squatting or kneeling often at work
  No 33,942 4750 14.0 1
  Yes 23,559 4699 19.9 1.531(1.465–1.601) *
 Lift heavy loads (more than 5 kg) kg)
  No 21,719 2787 12.8 1
  Yes 35,782 6662 18.6 1.554(1.481–1.630) *
 Lift heavy loads (more than 20 kg) kg)
  No 33,670 4669 13.9 1
  Yes 23,831 4780 20.1 1.558(1.491–1.629) *
 Use vibration tools at work
  No 35,673 5267 14.8 1
  Yes 21,828 4182 19.2 1.368(1.308–1.431) *
 Working in the same postures at a high pace
  No 11,044 970 8.8 1
  Yes 46,457 8479 18.3 2.319(2.162–2.487) *
 Trunk posture
  Trunk straight 18,566 2001 10.8 1
  Bend slightly with your trunk 31,361 5364 17.1 1.708(1.617–1.805) *
  Bend heavily with your trunk 7574 2084 27.5 3.142(2.934–3.365) *
 Always turn round with your trunk
  No 20,584 2592 12.6 1
  Yes 36,917 6857 18.6 1.583(1.508–1.663) *
 Always bend and twist with your trunk
  No 33,046 4069 12.3 1
  Yes 24,455 5380 22.0 2.009(1.921–2.100) *
 Always make the same movements with your trunk
  No 27,365 2882 10.5 1
  Yes 30,136 6567 21.8 2.367(2.258–2.482) *
 Work in bent posture for a prolonged time
  No 17,966 2777 15.5 1
  Yes 39,535 6672 16.9 1.110(1.058–1.165) *
Work organization factors
 Often work overtime
  No 24,830 3385 13.6 1
  Yes 32,671 6064 18.6 1.444(1.379–1.511) *
 Abundant resting time
  No 31,483 6766 21.5 1
  Yes 26,018 2683 10.3 0.420(0.400–0.441) *
 Decide the rest time independently
  No 47,308 8015 16.9 1
  Yes 10,193 1434 14.1 0.803(0.755–0.853) *
 Staff shortage
  No 31,477 4123 13.1 1
  Yes 26,024 5326 20.5 1.707(1.633–1.785) *
 Do the same job almost every day
  No 7009 716 10.2 1
  Yes 50,492 8733 17.3 1.838(1.696–1.992) *
 Take turns with colleagues to finish the work
  No 28,980 4944 17.1 1
  Yes 28,521 4505 15.8 0.912(0.873–0.953) *
  1. LBP Low back pain; Crude odds ratio; CI confidence interval; *:P < 0.05