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Table 3 Impact of the multimodal exercise programs in the affordance perception and balance variables

From: Can two multimodal psychomotor exercise programs improve attention, affordance perception, and balance in community dwellings at risk of falling? A randomized controlled trial

   Baseline (A)
Prevalence or Mean ± SD
Post-intervention (B)
Prevalence or Mean ± SD
Follow-up (C)
Prevalence or Mean ± SD
P-valuea Pairwise Comparison
Perceptual and stepping-forward boundary
 Estimated stepping-forward (cm)
  EG1 53.1 ± 10.4 53.5 ± 14.0 54.1 ± 12.1 0.779
  EG2 56.3 ± 12.6 58.4 ± 9.5 60.2 ± 13.3 0.051
  CG 61.3 ± 13.5 58.5 ± 11.8 55.6 ± 13.4 0.340
  P-valueb 0.069 0.178 0.454   
 Real stepping-forward (cm)
  EG1 60.6 ± 17.8 64.8 ± 15.3 62.9 ± 14.0 0.156
  EG2 65.7 ± 10.9 67.3 ± 11.7 66.5 ± 15.0 0.432
  CG 69.5 ± 16.5 64.4 ± 19.4 61.7 ± 18.4 0.157
  P-valueb 0.339 0.878 0.734   
 Absolute Error (cm)
  EG1 10.4 ± 8.0 11.4 ± 8.5 11.0 ± 8.7 0.528
  EG2 9.4 ± 6.5 10.3 ± 6.0 9.2 ± 7.1 0.939
  CG 8.8 ± 7.5 9.9 ± 7.1 10.0 ± 6.4 0.555
  P-valueb 0.644 0.928 0.852   
 Error tendency (%)
  Overestimation EG1 12.5 6.3 31.3 0.039
  Underestimation 87.5 93.8 68.8
  Overestimation EG2 0 12.5 31.3 0.042
  Underestimation 100 87.5 68.8
  Overestimation CG 15.8 31.6 31.6 0.276
  Underestimation 84.2 68.4 68.4
P-valueb 0.199 0.199 0.223   
 Multidimensional balance (points)
  EG1 27.1 ± 4.9 31.5 ± 3.7 29.0 ± 4.7 < 0.001 B > A, C
  EG2 27.6 ± 5.1 32.4 ± 4.1 29.9 ± 4.9 < 0.001 B > A, C
  CG 29.7 ± 3.2 29.5 ± 3.7 28.9 ± 3.5 0.351
  P-valueb 0.248 0.054 0.751   
  1. SD standard deviation, EG1 experimental group attending the multimodal psychomotor program (n = 16), EG2 experimental group attending the combined program: multimodal psychomotor program + WBV (n = 16), CG control group (n = 19)
  2. awithin-group comparisons
  3. bbetween-group comparisons
  4. <: significant differences within groups, p < 0.05