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Table 2 Impact of the multimodal exercise programs in selective and sustained attention variables

From: Can two multimodal psychomotor exercise programs improve attention, affordance perception, and balance in community dwellings at risk of falling? A randomized controlled trial

  Baseline (A)
(Mean ± SD)
Post-intervention (B)
(Mean ± SD)
Follow-up (C)
(Mean ± SD)
P-valuea Pairwise Comparison
Selective and sustained attention
 Items processed (n)
  EG1 254.8 ± 68.0 292.3 ± 86.9 288.8 ± 82.9 0.009 A < B, C
  EG2 265.1 ± 78.2 303.3 ± 82.8 300.4 ± 91.5 0.001 A < B, C
  CG 244.8 ± 75.5 250.0 ± 81.2 249.9 ± 78.1 0.854
P-valueb 0.855 0.204 0.210   
 Items recognized correctly (n)
  EG1 96.6 ± 27.2 110.0 ± 37.3 108.9 ± 35.5 0.047
  EG2 101.8 ± 36.2 120.4 ± 33.9 118.8 ± 36.9 <  0.001 A < B, C
  CG 95.5 ± 34.8 95.0 ± 39.8 99.8 ± 36.2 0.076
P-valueb 0.893 0.160 0.295   
 Total efficacy (n)
  EG1 236.3 ± 70.3 276.9 ± 90.5 272.2 ± 85.7 0.003 A < B, C
  EG2 251.2 ± 81.2 292.2 ± 84.3 286.4 ± 92.1 <  0.001 A < B, C
  CG 227.3 ± 73.9 228.6 ± 84.9 234.3 ± 80.2 0.076
P-valueb 0.801 0.136 0.312   
 Concentration index (n)
  EG1 90.0 ± 32.1 105.9 ± 40.6 103.0 ± 38.0 0.002 A < B, C
  EG2 97.8 ± 38.2 116.3 ± 36.3 115.8 ± 39.3 <  0.001 A < B, C
  CG 89.9 ± 38.1 88.3 ± 44.7 96.1 ± 39.1 0.141
P-valueb 0.858 0.143 0.293   
 Fluctuation rate (n)
  EG1 11.1 ± 2.6 12.6 ± 3.3 11.1 ± 3.5 0.207
  EG2 12.7 ± 6.0 10.3 ± 2.6 10.4 ± 3.1 0.637
  CG 12.9 ± 4.9 11.8 ± 4.6 10.2 ± 3.2 0.047
P-valueb 0.262 0.182 0.575   
 Percentage of errors (%)
  EG1 7.8 ± 6.9 6.2 ± 5.6 6.6 ± 5.5 0.895
  EG2 6.0 ± 5.3 4.2 ± 3.8 5.3 ± 5.8 0.611
  CG 7.7 ± 6.0 10.4 ± 9.3 7.6 ± 7.3 0.141
P-valueb 0.549 0.068 0.423   
  1. SD standard deviation, EG1 experimental group attending the multimodal psychomotor program (n = 16), EG2 experimental group attending the combined program: multimodal psychomotor program + WBV (n = 16), CG control group (n = 19)
  2. awithin-group comparisons
  3. bbetween-group comparisons
  4. <: significant differences within groups, p < 0.05