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Table 1 Unadjusted global and stratified prevalence of health outcomes by SDH factors in immigrant population (n = 777.407)

From: A comparative analysis of health status of international migrants and local population in Chile: a population-based, cross-sectional analysis from a social determinants of health perspective

Social determinant of health Negative self-perceived health Chronic morbidity Disability
n = 30.601 n = 74.216 n = 43.236
% 95% CI % 95% CI % 95% CI
3.97% [2.8–5.7%] 9.55% [8.3–10.9%] 14.63% [13.1–16.3%]
Sex
 Female 4.67% [2.7–8.0%] 10.34%**** [8.9–12.0%] 7.07%*** [5.0–10.0%]
 Male 3.22%** [2.4–4.4%] 8.92%**** [6.6–12.0%] 4.01%**** [3.1–5.2%]
Age categories
 < 6 1.66%**** [0.5–5.3%] 5.00%**** [2.6–9.5%] 6.45%**** [3.4–11.8%]
 6–14 years 3.78%**** [2.1–6.6%] 3.21%**** [1.6–6.3%] 6.02%**** [3.8–9.3%]
 15–29 years 2.90%**** [1.8–4.6%] 5.28%**** [2.5–10.7%] 2.98%**** [2.0–4.5%]
 30–44 years 3.93%**** [1.6–9.5%] 7.40%**** [6.1–9.0%] 5.53%**** [3.0–10.0%]
 45–64 years 5.40%**** [4.0–7.2%] 23.55%**** [19.4–28.2%] 6.29%**** [4.8–8.2%]
 65 years or more 13.33%**** [8.9–19.5%] 49.88%**** [41.9–57.9%] 29.41%**** [22.3–37.6%]
Ethnicity
 Yes 5.67% [3.6–8.8%] 10.44%**** [7.5–14.5%] 7.40%* [5.2–10.4%]
 No 3.92%* [2.7–5.7%] 9.63%**** [8.4–11.1%] 5.53%**** [4.2–7.3%]
Marital Status
 Single 4.21% [2.1–8.4%] 7.71%** [5.4–11.0%] 6.05% [3.7–9.6%]
 Married/cohabitant 3.02%**** [2.2–4.1%] 9.35%**** [7.9–11.1%] 4.39%**** [3.6–5.4%]
 Separated/divorced/annulled 7.55% [3.8–14.6%] 22.55%**** [15.8–31.1%] 6.16%*** [3.4–10.9%]
 Widow 19.81% [12.1–30.8%] 46.18%**** [35.3–57.4%] 32.13% [22.4–43.7%]
Area
 Urban 4.02% [2.8–5.8%] 9.51%**** [8.2–11.0%] 5.56%**** [4.2–7.3%]
 Rural 2.40%** [1.2–4.9%] 13.76%**** [9.7–19.1%] 6.27%*** [4.2–9.3%]
Educational level
 None 3.65% [1.8–7.3%] 5.60%**** [3.2–9.6%] 8.42%* [5.2–13.3%]
 University 2.90% [1.7–4.9%] 13.96%* [9.9–19.4%] 3.80%** [2.7–5.4%]
 Technical 1.68%** [1.0–3.0%] 7.52%**** [5.2–10.8%] 3.56%** [2.0–6.1%]
 High School 4.73% [2.4–9.3%] 7.77%**** [6.5–9.3%] 5.91%* [3.5–9.9%]
 Primary 5.67%** [4.2–7.7%] 9.95%**** [7.7–12.8%] 8.25%**** [6.3–10.7%]
Income quintile
 I 4.71%* [3.0–7.4%] 8.73%**** [6.5–11.7%] 5.63%**** [3.7–8.4%]
 II 6.01% [4.3–8.4%] 8.68%**** [6.9–10.9%] 7.68%** [5.2–11.2%]
 III 5.80% [1.9–16.8%] 8.29%**** [6.3–10.8%] 9.40% [4.7–18.0%]
 IV 1.91%**** [1.3–3.0%] 7.73%**** [6.2–9.6%] 3.93%**** [2.8–5.5%]
 V 3.30% [2.0–5.3%] 14.10%**** [10.1–19.3%] 3.13%**** [2.1–4.7%]
Occupation
 Does not study 0.91% [0.2–3.6%] 2.73% [1.0–7.6%] 4.12% [1.5–11.0%]
 Unemployed 9.41% [4.8–17.8%] 17.46%**** [14.1–21.4%] 13.05%** [8.1–20.3%]
 Studying 3.85% [1.1–12.2%] 8.53% [5.2–13.8%] 4.33% [2.5–7.4%]
 Employed 2.59%** [1.9–3.5%] 7.37%**** [6.0–9.0%] 3.38%**** [2.7–4.3%]
 Studying or/and employed 0.54%* [0.1–2.9%] 45.35%** [13.9–81.0%] 1.92% [0.5–6.6%]
Access to healthcare
 None 2.48%** [1.5–4.2%] 3.78%**** [2.5–5.6%] 4.70%* [2.8–7.8%]
 Public health system affiliation 4.36% [2.7–7.0%] 9.15%**** [7.8–10.8%] 6.48%**** [4.7–8.9%]
 Private health system affiliation 4.10% [2.1–7.9%] 18.78% [11.1–29.9%] 2.95%**** [1.9–4.5%]
 Others 2.55% [1.0–6.2%] 13.67%** [7.6–23.3%] 3.93%** [1.7–8.7%]
Social Support
 Yes 4.33%*** [3.2–5.9%] 13.54%**** [10.7–17.1%] 4.30%**** [3.3–5.6%]
 No 30.13% [6.6–72.5%] 3.54%**** [1.4–8.7%] 30.54% [6.8–72.7%]
Social capital
 Yes 3.93%** [2.7–5.7%] 15.42%**** [12.5–18.9%] 6.03%**** [4.6–7.9%]
 No 4.05%* [2.6–6.3%] 9.05%**** [7.4–11.0%] 5.44%**** [3.9–7.6%]
  1. *p value < 0.05; **p value < 0.01; ***p value < 0.001; ****p value < 0.0001 when comparing the same category between the Chilean-born and the immigrant populations (Chi-square test). CI confidence interval