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Table 4 Temporal associations between low health literacy (score < 4 on ‘Understanding’ scale) and health outcomes in injured participants, assessed over a 6-month period

From: Health literacy and recovery following a non-catastrophic road traffic injury

  Low Health Literacy (based on ‘Understanding’ scale)
Health Outcomes (each unit-increase)a β (95% CI) P value Effect size
SF-12 PCS −5.15 (−7.99, −2.32) 0.0004 0.5 SDs
EQ-5D-3L summary score −0.10 (−0.17, 0.03) 0.004 0.13 SDs
WHODAS score 9.04 (4.53, 13.55) < 0.0001 0.51 SDs
Pain severity ratings 0.68 (0.02, 1.34) 0.04 0.28 SDs
DASS-21 total score 4.17 (0.67, 7.66) 0.02 0.31 SDs
IESR total score 0.95 (0.32, 1.56) 0.003 0.34 SDs
Pain catastrophizing score 4.46 (1.27, 7.66) 0.01 0.36 SDs
  1. DASS-21 Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, EQ-5D-3L European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, IES-R Impact of Events Scale Revised, PCS Physical Component Summary Score, WHODAS WHO Disability Assessment Schedule
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex, education, social satisfaction, remoteness, pre-injury factors (anxiety/depression, disability, comorbidities and employment), type of road user, injury severity scores, hospital admission, pain severity, perceived danger, psychological factors (DASS-21, IESR, catastrophizing) and third-party insurance claim status