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Table 2 Factors associated with low health literacy (HL) as assessed by scoring < 4 on the ‘Understanding’ scale

From: Health literacy and recovery following a non-catastrophic road traffic injury

Baseline factors Low HL
(n = 83)
High HL
(n = 409)
P value Subgroup
p value
Age, years
 17–24 18 (21.7) 62 (15.2) 0.22  
 25–44 26 (31.3) 158 (38.6)  
 45–59 18 (21.7) 115 (28.1)  
 60–69 12 (14.5) 40 (9.8)  
 70+ 9 (10.8) 34 (8.3)  
Male gender 51 (61.5) 265 (64.8) 0.56  
Marital status    0.74  
 Divorced, widowed or separated 14 (17.1) 57 (13.9)  
 Married or defacto 45 (54.9) 227 (55.5)  
 Never married 23 (28.1) 125 (30.6)   
Educational level    0.001  
 Primary or pre-primary 10 (12.1) 10 (2.4) < 0.0001
 Secondary 28 (33.7) 125 (30.6) 0.6
 Technical/other further education 17 (20.5) 104 (25.4) 0.3
 Tertiary or university 28 (33.7) 170 (41.6)   0.18
Pre-injury paid work or self-employment 54 (65.1) 311 (76.0) 0.04  
Injury severity score
 12+ 7 (8.4) 14 (3.4)   
 9–11 8 (9.6) 26 (6.4) 0.05  
 4–8 25 (30.1) 171 (41.8)   
 1–3 43 (51.8) 198 (48.4)   
Pre-injury disabilitya 39 (47.6) 122 (29.9) 0.002  
Pre-injury comorbidity 58 (69.9) 213 (52.1) 0.003  
Lodging CTP claim 40 (48.2) 114 (27.9) 0.0003  
Pain severity ratings 5.4 (2.6) 4.0 (2.6) < 0.0001  
Total DASS-21 score 20.5 (17.9) 10.3 (12.8) < 0.0001  
Total IES-R scores 5.4 (3.3) 3.1 (2.8) < 0.0001  
Pain catastrophizing Scale scores 22.1 (16.0) 11.3 (12.4) < 0.0001  
Hospital stay > 12 hours 50 (60.2) 225 (55.0) 0.38  
Perceived sense of danger/death    0.01  
 Overwhelming 16 (19.8) 30 (7.4) 0.0005
 Great 18 (22.2) 71 (17.5) 0.3
 Moderate 13 (16.1) 85 (21.0) 0.3
 Small 15 (18.5) 92 (22.7) 0.4
 None 19 (23.5) 127 (31.4) 0.16
Pre-injury psychological conditions 31 (37.4) 101 (24.7) 0.02  
Type of road user
 Car driver 34 (41.0) 149 (36.6)   0.4
 Car passenger 14 (16.9) 35 (8.6) 0.003 0.02
 Motorbike 22 (26.5) 161 (39.6)   0.03
 Cyclist 3 (3.6) 40 (9.8)   0.07
 Pedestrian/skateboard 10 (12.1) 22 (5.4)   0.03
Social satisfaction
 Dissatisfied 3 (3.6) 4 (1.0)   0.06
 Neither 8 (9.6) 16 (3.9) 0.01 0.03
 Satisfied 72 (86.8) 389 (95.1)   0.004
  1. CTP Compulsory Third-Party Insurance, DASS-21 Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, IES-R Impact of Events Scale Revised
  2. Data are presented as mean (SD) or n (%)
  3. aAs assessed by total European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D-3L) scores