Skip to main content

Table 4 Associations of frequency and strength of spicy food consumption with CVD risk factors by diabetes

From: Association between spicy foods consumption and cardiovascular disease risk factors: Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

  Frequency of spicy foods consumption; β and 95% confidence interval
Never(<1 days/wk.) Sometimes (<2 days/wk.) Often (3–4 days/wk.) Usually (≥5 days/wk.) Adjusted R-squared P for trend
No. of participants
 Diabetes 3306 257 155 210   
 Non-diabetes 22,821 1449 840 951   
SBP
 Diabetes Ref 1.64(−1.52,4.80) 1.39(−2.63,5.41) 1.72(− 1.92,5.36) 0.0419 0.201
 Non-diabetes Ref 0.80(−0.55,2.16) 2.20(0.43,3.96) 2.27(0.58,3.95) 0.0789 < 0.001
DBP
 Diabetes Ref 0.93(−0.68,2.53) 0.79(− 1.26,2.83) 1.98(0.13,3.82) 0.0277 0.022
 Non-diabetes Ref 0.67(− 0.05,1.38) 1.18(0.25,2.11) 1.85(0.96,2.74) 0.0334 < 0.001
Glucose (mmol/L)
 Diabetes Ref −0.047(− 0.497,0.403) − 0.182(− 0.752,0.388) 0.440(− 0.073,0.952) 0.0103 0.297
 Non-diabetes Ref 0.010(− 0.029,0.049) 0.052(0.002,0.103) 0.026(− 0.023,0.075) 0.0707 0.054
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)
 Diabetes Ref −0.035(− 0.091,0.020) 0.002(− 0.069,0.073) 0.007(− 0.056,0.071) 0.0637 0.943
 Non-diabetes Ref −0.004(− 0.030,0.021) 0.001(− 0.032,0.035) −0.044(− 0.076,-0.012) 0.0572 0.027
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)
 Diabetes Ref 0.021(−0.082,0.125) −0.034(− 0.166,0.097) 0.007(− 0.111,0.125) 0.0641 0.972
 Non-diabetes Ref 0.067(0.025,0.110) 0.012(−0.043,0.067) −0.047(− 0.099,0.006) 0.0716 0.732
TG (mmol/L)
 Diabetes Ref 0.109(−0.156,0.375) −0.011(− 0.348,0.327) 0.499(0.195,0.802) 0.0144 0.006
 Non-diabetes Ref 0.021(−0.050,0.092) 0.033(−0.059,0.125) 0.068(− 0.020,0.156) 0.0023 0.091
TC (mmol/L)
 Diabetes Ref −0.011(− 0.187,0.164) −0.043(− 0.267,0.180) 0.089(− 0.112,0.290) 0.0364 0.612
 Non-diabetes Ref 0.068(−0.005,0.140) −0.007(− 0.101,0.087) −0.122(− 0.212,-0.032) 0.0471 0.092
BMI (kg/m2)
 Diabetes Ref 0.71(0.25,1.18) 0.96(0.37,1.55) 1.16(0.63,1.69) 0.0221 < 0.001
 Non-diabetes Ref 0.55(0.34,0.76) 0.81(0.54,0.108) 1.11(0.85,1.37) 0.0215 < 0.001
WC (cm)
 Diabetes Ref 1.11(−0.07,2.30) 2.05(0.54,3.56) 3.07(1.71,4.43) 0.0743 < 0.001
 Non-diabetes Ref 1.22(0.68,1.77) 1.69(0.98,2.40) 2.49(1.81,3.17) 0.0792 < 0.001
WHR
 Diabetes Ref 0.001(−0.007,0.010) 0.008(− 0.003,0.019) 0.005(− 0.005,0.015) 0.1024 0.137
 Non-diabetes Ref 0.004(0.000,0.007) 0.007(0.002,0.012) 0.009(0.004,0.014) 0.1471 < 0.001
  Strength of spicy foods consumption; β and 95% confidence interval
Never Mild Moderate strong Adjusted R-squared P for trend
No. of participants
 Diabetes 3306 354 197 71   
 Non-diabetes 22,821 2022 909 305   
SBP
 Diabetes Ref 1.16(−1.63,3.96) 2.44(−1.14,6.01) 1.38 (−4.76,7.51) 0.0421 0.155
 Non-diabetes Ref 1.93(0.77,3.09) 0.58(−1.14,2.31) 2.34(−0.66,5.34) 0.0789 0.006
DBP
 Diabetes Ref 1.04 (− 0.38,2.47) 1.61(− 0.20,3.42) 1.01(−2.11,4.13) 0.0275 0.043
 Non-diabetes Ref 1.23(0.62,1.84) 0.63(−0.28,1.54) 2.16(0.57,3.74) 0.0333 < 0.001
Glucose (mmol/L)
 Diabetes Ref 0.068(−0.329,0.464) 0.032(−0.475,0.538) 0.260(− 0.619,1.138) 0.0093 0.595
 Non-diabetes Ref 0.044(0.010,0.077) 0.010(−0.040,0.059) −0.052(− 0.139,0.035) 0.0708 0.466
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)
 Diabetes Ref −0.020(− 0.069,0.029) 0.000(− 0.063,0.063) 0.009(− 0.118,0.099) 0.0633 0.694
 Non-diabetes Ref −0.014(− 0.036,0.007) −0.013(− 0.045,0.019) −0.014(− 0.071,0.042) 0.0569 0.173
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)
 Diabetes Ref −0.046(− 0.137,0.045) 0.102(− 0.014,0.218) −0.044(− 0.244,0.156) 0.0655 0.610
 Non-diabetes Ref 0.001(−0.036,0.037) 0.056(0.002,0.110) 0.042(−0.053,0.136) 0.0711 0.071
TG (mmol/L)
 Diabetes Ref 0.060(−0.175,0.294) 0.459(0.160,0.758) 0.184(−0.331,0.699) 0.0139 0.011
 Non-diabetes Ref 0.003(−0.057,0.064) 0.081(− 0.009,0.171) 0.164(0.007,0.321) 0.0025 0.020
TC (mmol/L)
 Diabetes Ref −0.040(− 0.195,0.115) 0.101(− 0.097,0.299) 0.023(− 0.318,0.364) 0.0366 0.590
 Non-diabetes Ref −0.022(− 0.084,0.040) 0.016(− 0.076,0.108) 0.026(− 0.134,0.187) 0.0465 0.934
BMI (kg/m2)
 Diabetes Ref 0.75(0.34,1.16) 0.99(0.47,1.51) 1.59(0.69,2.50) 0.0226 < 0.001
 Non-diabetes Ref 0.61(0.43,0.79) 1.02(0.76,1.29) 1.22(0.76,1.69) 0.0215 < 0.001
WC (cm)
 Diabetes Ref 1.51(0.46,2.56) 1.99(0.66,3.33) 4.51(2.21,6.81) 0.0746 < 0.001
 Non-diabetes Ref 1.48(1.01,1.94) 1.83(1.14,2.52) 3.04(1.83,4.25) 0.0790 < 0.001
WHR
 Diabetes Ref 0.003(−0.004,0.011) 0.007(−0.003,0.016) 0.001(− 0.016,0.018) 0.1022 0.214
 Non-diabetes Ref 0.006(0.002,0.009) 0.004(−0.001,0.009) 0.015(0.007,0.024) 0.1471 < 0.001
  1. Data were expressed as β-coefficients and 95% confidence interval