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Table 3 Associations between strength of spicy food consumption and CVD risk factors

From: Association between spicy foods consumption and cardiovascular disease risk factors: Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

  Strength of spicy foods consumption; β and 95% confidence interval
Never Mild Moderate Strong Adjusted R-squared P for trend
No. of participants 26,413 2407 1121 380   
BMI (kg/m2) 23.67 ± 3.30 24.37 ± 3.29 24.66 ± 3.44 24.86 ± 3.35   < 0.001
 Crude model Ref 0.70(0.57,0.84) 1.00(0.80,1.19) 1.19(0.86,1.53) 0.0074 < 0.001
  Model 1 Ref 0.72(0.58,0.86) 1.04(0.84,1.23) 1.35(1.01,1.68) 0.0223 < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 0.68(0.51,0.84) 1.07(0.83,1.31) 1.38(0.97,1.80) 0.0221 < 0.001
  Model 3 Ref 0.67(0.51,0.84) 1.07(0.84,1.31) 1.41(1.00,1.83) 0.0232 < 0.001
WC (cm) 78.56 ± 8.99 79.98 ± 8.82 80.48 ± 9.08 81.92 ± 9.44   < 0.001
 Crude model Ref 1.42(1.04,1.80) 1.91(1.38,2.45) 3.36(2.45,4.27) 0.0770 < 0.001
  Model 1 Ref 1.77(1.40,2.13) 2.18(1.65,2.70) 3.40(2.52,4.29) 0.0765 < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 1.61(1.18,2.04) 2.10(1.48,2.72) 3.62(2.54,4.70) 0.0792 < 0.001
  Model 3 Ref 1.61(1.18,2.04) 2.13(1.51,2.75) 3.69(2.61,4.77) 0.0805 < 0.001
WHR 0.867 ± 0.068 0.871 ± 0.067 0.873 ± 0.067 0.881 ± 0.065   < 0.001
 Crude model Ref 0.004(0.001,0.007) 0.006(0.002,0.010) 0.014(0.007,0.021) 0.0009 < 0.001
  Model 1 Ref 0.007(0.005,0.010) 0.008(0.004,0.012) 0.012(0.006,0.019) 0.1431 < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 0.007(0.003,0.010) 0.007(0.003,0.011) 0.015(0.007,0.023) 0.1404 < 0.001
  Model 3 Ref 0.007(0.003,0.010) 0.007(0.003,0.012) 0.015(0.007,0.023) 0.1407 < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 130.34 ± 22.13 131.08 ± 21.85 129.48 ± 22.91 131.19 ± 22.98   0.183
 Crude model Ref 0.74(−0.19,1.67) −0.86(−2.19,0.47) 0.86(−1.39,3.10) 0.0001 0.772
  Model 1 Ref 2.19(1.29,3.08) 1.06(− 0.22,2.33) 3.04(0.88,5.20) 0.0944 < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 2.05(0.98,3.12) 1.42(−0.12,2.97) 2.49(− 0.19,5.17) 0.0778 < 0.001
  Model 3 Ref 2.07(1.00,3.14) 1.46(−0.09,3.00) 2.49(−0.19,5.18) 0.0783 < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 73.47 ± 11.22 74.59 ± 11.27 74.16 ± 11.28 75.83 ± 12.42   < 0.001
 Crude model Ref 1.12(0.65,1.59) 0.68(0.01,1.36) 2.35(1.22,3.49) 0.0012 < 0.001
  Model 1 Ref 1.48(1.01,1.95) 0.78(0.11,1.45) 2.18(1.05,3.32) 0.0330 < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 1.26(0.69,1.82) 0.95(0.14,1.76) 2.00(0.60,3.41) 0.0306 < 0.001
  Model 3 Ref 1.26(0.69,1.82) 0.99(0.18,1.79) 2.03(0.62,3.43) 0.0316 < 0.001
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.73 ± 1.63 5.85 ± 1.78 5.92 ± 1.85 6.03 ± 2.28   < 0.001
 Crude model Ref 0.118(0.048,0.117) 0.190(0.091,0.290) 0.299(0.130,0.468) 0.0010 < 0.001
  Model 1 Ref 0.149(0.079,0.219) 0.259(0.158,0.359) 0.352(0.182,0.522) 0.0154 < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 0.155(0.069,0.240) 0.286(0.162,0.410) 0.330(0.113,0.546) 0.0176 < 0.001
  Model 3 Ref 0.157(0.071,0.243) 0.279(0.155,0.403) 0,336(0.120,0.552) 0.0194 < 0.001
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.66 ± 0.41 1.63 ± 0.40 1.63 ± 0.42 1.60 ± 0.40   < 0.001
 Crude model Ref −0.029(−0.045,-0.012) −0.030(− 0.055,-0.006) − 0.060(− 0.101,-0.019) 0.0007 < 0.001
  Model 1 Ref − 0.032(− 0.049,-0.015) − 0.017(− 0.041,0.007) −0.029(− 0.070,0.012) 0.0494 0.001
  Model 2 Ref −0.020(− 0.040,0.000) −0.015(− 0.044,0.014) −0.020(− 0.070,0.031) 0.0498 0.054
  Model 3 Ref −0.018(− 0.038,0.002) −0.019(− 0.048,0.010) −0.026(− 0.076,0.024) 0.0560 0.030
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.26 ± 0.71 3.26 ± 0.69 3.30 ± 0.71 3.31 ± 0.73   0.262
 Crude model Ref −0.003(− 0.032,0.027) 0.034(− 0.008,0.076) 0.045(− 0.027,0.117) 0.0000 0.100
  Model 1 Ref −0.030(− 0.059,-0.001) 0.027(− 0.015,0.069) 0.064(− 0.007,0.135) 0.0483 0.335
  Model 2 Ref −0.009(− 0.043,0.025) 0.084(0.035,0.132) 0.043(− 0.042,0.128) 0.0610 0.012
  Model 3 Ref −0.006(− 0.039,0.028) 0.076(0.027,0.124) 0.033(− 0.051,0.118) 0.0689 0.023
TG (mmol/L) 1.66 ± 1.22 1.73 ± 1.34 1.83 ± 1.73 1.90 ± 1.61   < 0.001
 Crude model Ref 0.062(0.010,0.115) 0.166(0.091,0.242) 0.236(0.108,0.364) 0.0011 < 0.001
  Model 1 Ref 0.067(0.014,0.121) 0.174(0.098,0.250) 0.242(0.113,0.372) 0.0029 < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 0.030(−0.032,0.093) 0.207(0.117,0.297) 0.224(0.067,0.381) 0.0036 < 0.001
  Model 3 Ref 0.031(−0.031,0.093) 0.208(0.118,0.298) 0.227(0.070,0.384) 0.0038 < 0.001
TC (mmol/L) 5.92 ± 1.14 5.92 ± 1.13 5.95 ± 1.11 5.97 ± 1.17   0.764
 Crude model Ref 0.000(−0.048,0.048) 0.026(− 0.042,0.094) 0.047(− 0.069,0.162) −0.0001 0.351
  Model 1 Ref −0.016(− 0.063,0.032) 0.045(− 0.023,0.113) 0.113(− 0.003,0.228) 0.0355 0.099
  Model 2 Ref −0.031(− 0.088,0.027) 0.062(− 0.021,0.145) 0.053(− 0.091,0.197) 0.0376 0.367
  Model 3 Ref −0.025(− 0.082,0.032) 0.050(− 0.033,0.132) 0.038(− 0.105,0.182) 0.0441 0.493
  1. Data were expressed as β-coefficients and 95% confidence interval, or mean ± standard deviation
  2. Model 1: adjusted for sex, age, education, household income, occupation, physical activity, drinking status, smoking status
  3. Model 2: additionally adjusted for daily energy intake
  4. Model 3: additionally adjusted for daily carbohydrate, fat and protein intake