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Table 2 Associations between frequency of spicy food consumption and CVD risk factors

From: Association between spicy foods consumption and cardiovascular disease risk factors: Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

  Frequency of spicy foods consumption; β and 95% confidence interval
Never(<1 day/wk.) Sometimes (<2 days/wk.) Often (3-4 days/wk.) Usually (≥5 days/wk.) Adjusted R-squared P for trend
No. of participants 26,413 1728 1005 1179   
BMI (kg/m2) 23.67 ± 3.30 24.27 ± 3.32 24.48 ± 3.36 24.85 ± 3.33   < 0.001
 Crude model Ref 0.61(0.45,0.77) 0.81(0.61,1.02) 1.18(0.99,1.38) 0.0077 < 0.001
  Model 1 Ref 0.62(0.46,0.79) 0.85(0.64,1.06) 1.24(1.05,1.44) 0.0226 < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 0.62(0.43,0.81) 0.87(0.62,1.12) 1.18(0.95,1.42) 0.0220 < 0.001
  Model 3 Ref 0.62(0.43,0.81) 0.88(0.63,1.13) 1.19(0.95,1.42) 0.0232 < 0.001
WC (cm) 78.56 ± 8.99 79.56 ± 8.87 80.26 ± 8.83 81.46 ± 9.14   < 0.001
 Crude model Ref 0.99(0.55,1.43) 1.70(1.13,2.26) 2.90(2.37,3.42) 0.0052 < 0.001
  Model 1 Ref 1.41(0.99,1.84) 1.97(1.42,2.52) 2.99(2.48,3.50) 0.0774 < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 1.39(0.89,1.89) 1.89(1.25,2.54) 2.80(2.18,3.41) 0.0793 < 0.001
  Model 3 Ref 1.39(0.89,1.89) 1.91(1.26,2.56) 2.81(2.20,3.43) 0.0806 < 0.001
WHR 0.867 ± 0.068 0.867 ± 0.067 0.874 ± 0.066 0.878 ± 0.067   < 0.001
 Crude model Ref 0.001(−0.003,0.004) 0.007(0.002,0.011) 0.011(0.007,0.015) 0.0012 < 0.001
  Model 1 Ref 0.004(0.001,0.008) 0.009(0.005,0.013) 0.012(0.008,0.016) 0.1434 < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 0.005(0.001,0.008) 0.009(0.004,0.014) 0.010(0.006,0.015) 0.1404 < 0.001
  Model 3 Ref 0.005(0.001,0.008) 0.009(0.004,0.014) 0.010(0.006,0.015) 0.1408 < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 130.34 ± 22.13 129.60 ± 22.17 130.89 ± 22.30 131.87 ± 22.36   0.044
 Crude model Ref −0.74(−1.82,0.34) 0.55(− 0.84,1.95) 1.53(0.24,2.83) 0.0002 0.063
  Model 1 Ref 1.27(0.22,2.31) 2.18(0.84,3.52) 2.67(1.42,3.91) 0.0944 < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 1.31(0.06,2.55) 2.31(0.70,3.92) 2.44(0.92,3.97) 0.0778 < 0.001
  Model 3 Ref 1.32(0.07,2.56) 2.34(0.73,3.95) 2.47(0.95,4.00) 0.0783 < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 73.47 ± 11.22 74.11 ± 11.19 74.62 ± 11.59 75.24 ± 11.50   < 0.001
 Crude model Ref 0.63(0.09,1.18) 1.15(0.44,1.86) 1.77(1.11,2.43) 0.0012 < 0.001
  Model 1 Ref 0.92(0.37,1.47) 1.26(0.55,1.96) 2.02(1.37,2.67) 0.0330 < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 0.79(0.14,1.45) 1.18(0.34,2.03) 1.94(1.14,2.73) 0.0307 < 0.001
  Model 3 Ref 0.80(0.15,1.46) 1.19(0.34,2.03) 1.96(1.16,2.76) 0.0318 < 0.001
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.73 ± 1.63 5.82 ± 1.85 5.85 ± 1.68 6.01 ± 2.01   < 0.001
 Crude model Ref 0.093(0.012,0.175) 0.117(0.012,0.222) 0.278(0.180,0.375) 0.0012 < 0.001
  Model 1 Ref 0.136(0.054,0.219) 0.173(0.068,0.278) 0.310(0.212,0.407) 0.0154 < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 0.150(0.050,0.250) 0.187(0.058,1.316) 0.310(0.188,0.432) 0.0176 < 0.001
  Model 3 Ref 0.147(0.047,0.246) 0.193(0.063,0.322) 0.310(0.188,0.432) 0.0194 < 0.001
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.66 ± 0.41 1.64 ± 0.41 1.63 ± 0.41 1.61 ± 0.39   < 0.001
 Crude model Ref −0.019 (− 0.039,0.000) −0.031(− 0.056, − 0.005) − 0.051(− 0.074, − 0.027) 0.0007 < 0.001
  Model 1 Ref − 0.018(− 0.037,0.002) − 0.022(− 0.047,0.003) −0.045(− 0.068,-0.022) 0.0495 < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref −0.012(− 0.035,0.011) −0.006(− 0.036,0.025) −0.040(− 0.069,-0.012) 0.0500 0.008
  Model 3 Ref −0.013(− 0.036,0.010) −0.004(− 0.034,0.026) −0.041(− 0.069,-0.013) 0.0561 0.007
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.26 ± 0.71 3.31 ± 0.71 3.25 ± 0.68 3.24 ± 0.71   0.022
 Crude model Ref 0.050 (0.015,0.084) −0.010 (− 0.054,0.035) − 0.022 (− 0.063,0.019) 0.0002 0.783
  Model 1 Ref 0.019(−0.015,0.054) − 0.017(− 0.061,0.027) −0.028(− 0.068,0.013) 0.0481 0.261
  Model 2 Ref 0.067(0.028,0.106) 0.005(−0.046,0.056) −0.029(− 0.077,0.019) 0.0610 0.996
  Model 3 Ref 0.065(0.026,0.104) 0.006(−0.044,0.057) −0.031(− 0.079,0.017) 0.0691 0.961
TG (mmol/L) 1.66 ± 1.22 1.74 ± 1.51 1.77 ± 1.45 1.83 ± 1.49   < 0.001
 Crude model Ref 0.075 (0.014,0.137) 0.102 (0.023,0.182) 0.161 (0.087,0.234) 0.0008 < 0.001
  Model 1 Ref 0.077(0.015,0.140) 0.107(0.027,0.187) 0.171(0.097,0.245) 0.0027 < 0.001
  Model 2 Ref 0.066(−0.007,0.138) 0.051(−0.043,0.145) 0.185(0.096,0.273) 0.0032 < 0.001
  Model 3 Ref 0.066(−0.007,0.138) 0.053(−0.041,0.147) 0.186(0.097,0.275) 0.0034 < 0.001
TC (mmol/L) 5.92 ± 1.14 5.99 ± 1.16 5.91 ± 1.09 5.88 ± 1.12   0.054
 Crude model Ref 0.066 (0.011,0.122) −0.013 (−0.085,0.059) −0.044 (− 0.111,0.022) 0.0002 0.566
  Model 1 Ref 0.056(0.001,0.112) 0.000(−0.071,0.071) −0.032(− 0.099,0.034) 0.0354 0.799
  Model 2 Ref 0.064(−0.003,0.130) −0.013(− 0.099,0.074) −0.071(− 0.152,0.011) 0.0377 0.315
  Model 3 Ref 0.060(−0.007,0.126) −0.009(− 0.095,0.077) −0.073(− 0.154,0.008) 0.0444 0.300
  1. Data were expressed as β coefficients and 95% confidence interval, or mean ± standard deviation
  2. Model 1: adjusted for sex, age, education, household income, occupation, physical activity, drinking status, smoking status
  3. Model 2: additionally adjusted for daily energy intake
  4. Model 3: additionally adjusted for daily carbohydrate, fat and protein intake