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Table 4 Effects of exposure to glyphosate on lung function after glyphosate application (N = 180)

From: Effects of exposure to glyphosate on oxidative stress, inflammation, and lung function in maize farmers, Northern Thailand

Factors FEV1 FVC FEV1/FVC PEF FEF25-75%
β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI
Age (year) -0.000 -0.003, 0.002 0.000 -0.003, 0.003 -0.001 -0.002, 0.000 0.006 -0.008, 0.020 -0.003 -0.009, 0.002
Gender (male vs female (ref.)) -0.087 -0.125, -0.049** -0.004 -0.060, 0.052 -0.022 -0.044, 0.000 -0.565 -0.805, -0.325** -0.065 -0.159, 0.030
Education (primary school vs secondary school or higher (ref.)) -0.000 -0.042, 0.041 0.004 -0.058, 0.065 -0.013 -0.037, 0.011 -0.054 -0.317, 0.208 0.068 -0.036, 0.171
BMI (kg/m2) 0.002 -0.003, 0.007 -0.005 -0.012, 0.002 0.003 -0.000, 0.005 0.015 -0.016, 0.045 -0.005 -0.017, 0.007
Smoking status (yes vs no (ref.)) 0.028 -0.028, 0.084 -0.016 -0.099, 0.067 0.032 -0.001, 0.065 0.052 -0.303, 0.407 -0.025 -0.165, 0.116
Respiratory diseases (yes vs no (ref.)) -0.035 -0.081, 0.010 0.013 -0.054, 0.080 -0.019 -0.045, 0.007 -0.147 -0.435, 0.141 -0.045 -0.158, 0.069
Urinary glyphosate levels (μg/g creatinine) -0.134 -0.168, -0.100** 0.009 -0.042, 0.059 -0.062 -0.082, -0.042** -0.952 -1.169, -0.735** -0.015 -0.100, 0.071
  1. FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC Forced vital capacity, PEF Peak expiratory flow, FEF25-75% Forced expiratory flow 25–75%, β Beta, 95% CI 95% confidence interval. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01