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Table 2 Factors affecting the increase of urinary glyphosate levels after glyphosate application on maize farms (N = 180)

From: Effects of exposure to glyphosate on oxidative stress, inflammation, and lung function in maize farmers, Northern Thailand

Factors The increase of urinary glyphosate levels
β 95% CI
Age (year) -0.005 -0.013, 0.003
Gender (male vs female (ref.)) 0.004 -0.135, 0.143
Education (primary or lower vs junior high school or higher (ref.)) -0.027 -0.174, 0.119
Spraying equipment (backpack vs pump(ref.)) 0.115 -0.204, 0.434
Type of spray handle (high pressure vs normal pressure (ref.)) -0.143 -0.652, 0.365
Length of spray handle (cm) 0.017 -0.012, 0.045
Distance between the house and the maize farm (km) -0.030 -0.088, 0.028
Amounts of glyphosate used (liter/day) 0.001 0.000, 0.001**
Intensity level of exposure 0.044 0.024, 0.063**
  1. Β Beta, 95% CI 95% confidence interval. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01