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Table 2 Bivariate and multivariate analyses of the determinants of experiencing work-related injuries in the past 12 months among surveyed children

From: Work-related injuries among 5 – 17 years-old working children in Egypt: findings from a national child labor survey

  Bivariate (N = 7485) Multivariate (N = 6366)
Full Modelb Final Modelc
OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value
Child age (years)
 5 – 11 1.00 (Reference) 0.230 1.00 (Reference) 0.633   
 12 – 14 1.17 (0.97 – 1.41)   1.03 (0.79 – 1.34)    
 15 – 17 1.15 (0.95 – 1.39)   0.94 (0.71 – 1.25)    
Child gender
 Girls 1.00 (Reference) < 0.001* 1.00 (Reference) 0.034* 1.00 (Reference) 0.018*
 Boys 1.86 (1.54 – 2.25)   1.34 (1.02 – 1.75)   1.35 (1.05 – 1.74)  
Highest school level—completed
 None 1.00 (Reference) 0.083 1.00 (Reference) 0.876   
 Primary 1.16 (0.87 – 1.56)   1.01 (0.69 – 1.47)    
 Preparatory 1.00 (0.66 – 1.39)   0.96 (0.60 – 1.52)    
 Secondary or above 1.16 (0.61 – 2.21)   1.36 (0.61 – 3.01)    
 Not reported 0.87 (0.65 – 1.16)   0.67 (0.18 – 2.51)    
Place of residence
 Rural 1.00 (Reference) 0.569 1.00 (Reference) 0.054   
 Urban 1.07 (0.85 – 1.35)   1.31 (1.00 – 1.72)    
Wealth index quintile
 Highest (Richest) 1.00 (Reference) 0.042* 1.00 (Reference) 0.717   
 Fourth 2.33 (1.27 – 4.26)   1.64 (0.79 – 3.44)    
 Middle 2.33 (1.30 – 4.17)   1.37 (0.69 – 2.76)    
 Second 2.10 (1.18 – 3.74)   1.38 (0.68 – 2.80)    
 Lowest (Poorest) 2.35 (1.34 – 4.09)   1.42 (0.71 – 2.86)    
Age at first time to work (years)
 15 – 17 1.00 (Reference) 0.281 1.00 (Reference) 0.013* 1.00 (Reference) 0.004*
 12 – 14 1.25 (0.95 – 1.66)   1.28 (0.94 – 1.75)   1.27 (0.94 – 1.71)  
 5 – 11 1.34 (0.99 – 1.80)   1.62 (1.16 – 2.27)   1.61 (1.18 – 2.21)  
 Not reported 1.26 (0.84 – 1.87)   -   -  
Child activities combinations
 Work only 1.00 (Reference) 0.037* 1.00 (Reference) 0.328   
 Work & Chores 0.93 (0.73 – 1.20)   1.10 (0.81 – 1.49)    
 Work & Schooling 1.01 (0.73 – 1.40)   2.01 (0.53 – 7.62)    
 Work, Chores, and Schooling 0.75 (0.58 – 0.95)   1.61 (0.41 – 6.28)    
 Not reported 2.55 (0.39 – 16.4)   -    
Status in employment
 Own account worker or employer 1.00 (Reference) < 0.001* 1.00 (Reference) 0.127   
 Unpaid family worker 1.81 (1.00 – 3.27)   1.73 (0.85 – 3.52)    
 Employee 2.71 (1.50 – 4.87)   1.93 (0.97 – 3.84)    
 Not reported 1.81 (0.97 – 3.38)   -    
Main economic activity
 Agriculture 1.00 (Reference) 0.022* 1.00 (Reference) 0.053 1.00 (Reference) 0.026*
 Industry 1.18 (0.96 – 1.45)   2.27 (1.17 – 4.42)   2.45 (1.28 – 4.70)  
 Services 0.61 (0.41 – 0.92)   2.03 (0.95 – 4.33)   2.27 (1.08 – 4.80)  
 Not reported 1.39 (0.40 – 4.86)   -   -  
Main workplacea
 Dwelling 1.00 (Reference) < 0.001* 1.00 (Reference) 0.001* 1.00 (Reference) < 0.001*
 Plantation, farms, or garden 1.96 (1.35 – 2.86)   1.89 (1.22 – 2.93)   1.93 (1.24 – 3.01)  
 Service or Sales places 0.93 (0.59 – 1.47)   0.53 (0.28 – 0.99)   0.56 (0.30 – 1.04)  
 Factory or workshops 2.20 (1.41 – 3.44)   0.72 (0.39 – 1.31)   0.82 (0.44 – 1.52)  
 Construction, mines, or quarries 4.49 (2.82 – 7.15)   1.31 (0.68 – 2.55)   1.41 (0.72 – 2.76)  
 Others 1.70 (1.00 – 2.27)   0.78 (0.41 – 1.46)   0.77 (0.40 – 1.51)  
 Not reported 1.53 (1.04 – 2.27)   -   -  
Average work hours (per week)
 Less than 28 h 1.00 (Reference) < 0.001* 1.00 (Reference) 0.002* 1.00 (Reference) 0.001*
 28—42 h 1.48 (1.21 – 1.81)   1.41 (1.10 – 1.81)   1.38 (1.09 – 1.74)  
 Over 42 h 1.68 (1.38 – 2.04)   1.60 (1.21 – 2.12)   1.57 (1.23 – 2.00)  
Hazardous work exposures
 Ergonomic and safety hazards 5.08 (4.26 – 6.27) < 0.001* 3.63 (2.81 – 4.69) < 0.001* 3.65 (2.84 – 4.68) < 0.001*
 Chemical hazards 3.75 (3.05 – 4.60) < 0.001* 2.47 (1.94 – 3.14) < 0.001* 2.46 (1.95 – 3.10) < 0.001*
 Physical hazards 1.85 (1.50 – 2.28) < 0.001* 0.96 (0.75 – 1.23) 0.738 - -
Receipt of vocational training
 No 1.00 (Reference) 0.013* 1.00 (Reference) 0.106   
 Yes 1.97 (1.21 – 3.21)   1.66 (0.90 – 3.08)    
 Not reported 0.86 (0.67 – 1.10)   -    
  1. aDwelling: includes family dwelling, others’ dwelling, or client’s places. Service & commercial: includes formal office, shop, kiosk, coffee house, restaurant, hotel, fixed market stall, or in street work. Others: includes different places (mobile), work in pond, lake, river, or other places
  2. bPseudo R Square (Nagelkerke = 0.218), Percent correct classification = 77.1%
  3. cPseudo R Square (Nagelkerke = 0.211), Percent correct classification = 76.3%
  4. *Statistically significant p-value of the Wald Test of Model Effect (F) at 0.05 level