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Table 4 Contributors and challenges by level of implementation involvement

From: How service delivery implementation strategies can contribute to attaining universal health coverage: lessons from polio eradication using an implementation science approach

  % within levels of involvement (95% CI)
Contributors and challenges Global National Subnational
  (n = 24) (n = 56) (n = 767)
Internal contributors (chi-square: 9.22; p:0.162)
 Individual characteristics 16.7 (6.3–37.5) 21.4 (12.5–34.2) 18.3 (15.7–21.2)
 Organizational settings 4.17 (0.6–25.2) 23.2 (13.9–36.1) 17.5 (14.9–20.3)
 Polio program characteristics 33.3 (17.3–54.4) 12.5 (6.0–24.1) 15.7 (13.2–18.4)
 Process of conducting activities 45.8 (27.1–65.8) 42.9 (30.5–56.1) 48.6 (45.1–52.2)
External contributors (chi-square: 5.82; p:0.667)
 Political environment 25 (11.5–46.2) 19.6 (11.2–32.2) 26.8 (23.7–30.0)
 Economic environment 25 (11.5–46.2) 25 (15.3–38.1) 19.3 (16.6–22.3)
 Social environment 41.7(23.7–62.1) 39.3 (27.3–52.7) 42.6 (39.2–46.2)
 Technological environment 8.3 (2.0–28.6) 10.7 (4.9–22.0) 9.3 (7.4–11.6)
Implementation challenges (chi-square: 8.60; p = 0.377)
 Individual challenges 18.2 (6.8–40.3) 13.2 (6.4–25.4) 9.4 (7.5–11.7)
 Organizational challenges 0 7.6 (2.8–18.6) 7.7 (6.0–9.8)
 GPEI-related challenges 0 5.7 (1.8–16.3) 4.4 (3.1–6.1)
 Implementation challenges 9.1(2.2–30.7) 24.5 (14.7–38.0) 22.8 (19.9–26.0)
 External challenges 72.7 (50.5–87.5) 49.1 (35.8–62.4) 55.7 (52.1–59.2)