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Table 5 Factors associated with household access to individual and combined basic WASH services, 2017–2018

From: Household access to basic drinking water, sanitation and hygiene facilities: secondary analysis of data from the demographic and health survey V, 2017–2018

Variables Water Sanitation Hygiene Combined WASH
aOR 95% CI p aOR 95% CI p aOR 95% CI p aOR 95% CI p
Age (years)             
 < 30 Ref    Ref    Ref    Ref   
30–39 1.20 1.05–1.38 0.008 1.71 1.37–2.13  < 0.001 1.16 0.94–1.43 0.155 1.88 1.2–2.94 0.006
40–49 1.19 1.04–1.38 0.014 3.33 2.68–4.13  < 0.001 1.49 1.22–1.83  < 0.001 4.15 2.77–6.21  < 0.001
50–59 1.17 1.01–1.35 0.035 3.78 2.94–4.84  < 0.001 1.51 1.22–1.87  < 0.001 4.26 2.9–6.26  < 0.001
 ≥ 60 1.06 0.92–1.22 0.431 4.80 3.76–6.12  < 0.001 1.65 1.32–2.06  < 0.001 6.02 3.95–9.18  < 0.001
Sex             
Male Ref    Ref         
Female 1.13 1.01–1.25 0.031 1.32 1.14–1.53  < 0.001       
Level of education             
No formal education     Ref    Ref    Ref   
Primary     1.09 0.91–1.30 0.336 1.22 1.01–1.46 0.040 1.23 0.81–1.87 0.329
Secondary     1.65 1.37–1.98  < 0.001 1.71 1.42–2.05  < 0.001 2.92 1.99–4.27  < 0.001
Higher     3.54 2.73–4.59  < 0.001 3.18 2.50–4.04  < 0.001 9.84 6.55–14.77  < 0.001
Wealth index             
Poorest Ref    Ref    Ref    Ref   
Poorer 1.48 1.26–1.74  < 0.001 7.61 1.48–39.28 0.015 1.40 1.02–1.93 0.038    
Middle 1.85 1.54–2.22  < 0.001 22.13 4.55–107.55  < 0.001 1.61 1.19–2.19 0.002    
Richer 2.80 2.27–3.45  < 0.001 143.28 29.90–686.56  < 0.001 2.18 1.58–3.01  < 0.001 19.27 2.63–141.13 0.004
Richest 7.06 5.38–9.27  < 0.001 651.82 136.20–3,119.53  < 0.001 4.93 3.54–6.88  < 0.001 380.23 55.99–2,581.98  < 0.001
Household size             
 ≤ 5 1.15 1.04–1.28 0.007          
 > 5 Ref            
Department             
Alibori Ref    1.86 1.12–3.10 0.017 8.34 4.19–16.60  < 0.001 5.27 1.10–25.16 0.037
Atacora 2.04 1.34–3.12 0.001 1.51 0.82–2.78 0.181 3.45 1.60–7.43 0.002 6.89 1.58–29.96 0.010
Atlantique 2.51 1.54–4.09  < 0.001 2.13 1.43–3.18  < 0.001 10.10 5.06–20.15  < 0.001 12.25 2.91–51.64 0.001
Borgou 1.74 1.16–2.61 0.007 1.81 1.10–2.97 0.019 9.04 4.73–17.28  < 0.001 6.43 1.57–26.30 0.010
Collines 2.82 1.76–4.51  < 0.001 Ref    10.67 5.50–20.69  < 0.001 4.46 0.83–24.12 0.082
Couffo 1.92 1.15–3.22 0.013 1.65 1.00–2.75 0.052 7.96 4.00–15.85  < 0.001 4.20 0.83–21.22 0.082
Donga 1.01 0.63–1.64 0.956 1.04 0.56–1.93 0.912 3.72 1.64–8.44 0.002 Ref   
Littoral 32.13 14.23–72.56  < 0.001 1.49 0.99–2.23 0.054 9.10 4.62–17.92  < 0.001 10.77 2.66–43.62 0.001
Mono 3.12 1.79–5.43  < 0.001 1.92 1.22–3.02 0.005 2.50 1.02–6.11 0.044 1.65 0.29–9.28 0.568
Ouémé 3.28 2.05–5.24  < 0.001 2.05 1.35–3.11 0.001 3.20 1.60–6.38 0.001 5.73 1.41–23.29 0.015
Plateau 3.48 2.17–5.58  < 0.001 3.60 2.23–5.81  < 0.001 Ref    2.57 0.41–16.05 0.311
Zou 3.27 2.02–5.27  < 0.001 6.44 4.04–10.29  < 0.001 2.19 1.08–4.42 0.029 4.81 1.15–20.20 0.032
  1. aOR Adjusted Odd Ratio, Ref Reference category
  2. For identifying predictors of combined basic WASH services, the categories 'Poorest' and ' Poorer' of the 'Wealth Index' were put together, as well as 'Middle' and 'Richer'