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Table 4 Association between independent variables and household access to individual and combined basic WASH services in Benin, 2017–2018

From: Household access to basic drinking water, sanitation and hygiene facilities: secondary analysis of data from the demographic and health survey V, 2017–2018

Variables Water Sanitation Hygiene Combined WASH
  Yes   No p   Yes   No p   Yes   No p   Yes   No p
n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n %
Age (years)      0.002       < 0.001      0.225      0.001
 < 30 1,562 63.63 893 36.37   220 8.95 2,235 91.05   238 9.72 2,216 90.28   44 1.78 2,411 98.22  
30–39 2,507 65.80 1,303 34.20   462 12.12 3,348 87.88   380 9.98 3,430 90.02   101 2.65 3,709 97.35  
40–49 1,924 64.79 1,046 35.21   451 15.19 2,519 84.81   324 10.92 2,645 89.08   107 3.59 2,863 96.41  
50–59 1,389 64.70 758 35.30   356 16.60 1,790 83.40   234 10.92 1,912 89.08   86 4.03 2,060 95.97  
 ≥ 60 1,675 60.36 1,100 39.64   392 14.11 2,384 85.89   254 9.14 2,522 90.86   87 3.14 2,688 96.86  
Sex       < 0.001      0.135      0.555      0.081
Male 6,654 62.57 3,980 37.43   1,383 13.01 9,251 86.99   1,085 10.21 9,548 89.79   336 3.16 10,298 96.84  
Female 2,403 68.22 1,119 31.78   497 14.12 3,025 85.88   346 9.81 3,177 90.19   89 2.51 3,434 97.49  
Level of education       < 0.001       < 0.001       < 0.001       < 0.001
No formal education 4,319 57.18 3,234 42.82   492 6.52 7,060 93.48   469 6.21 7,084 93.79   43 0.57 7,510 99.43  
Primary 2,164 66.97 1,067 33.03   427 13.21 2,805 86.79   303 9.39 2,929 90.61   55 1.71 3,177 98.29  
Secondary 1,899 73.23 694 26.77   587 22.64 2,006 77.36   401 15.44 2,193 84.56   145 5.57 2,449 94.43  
Higher 674 86.68 104 13.32   374 48.09 404 51.91   258 33.18 520 66.82   182 23.36 596 76.64  
Marital status      0.018      0.784      0.550      0.948
Single 2,098 66.20 1,071 33.80   426 13.45 2,743 86.55   330 10.40 2,839 89.60   94 2.98 3,074 97.02  
In couple 6,959 63.34 4,028 36.66   1,454 13.23 9,533 86.77   1,101 10.02 9,886 89.98   330 3.01 10,657 96.99  
Wealth index       < 0.001       < 0.001       < 0.001       < 0.001
Poorest 1,034 41.32 1,468 58.68   3 0.10 2,499 99.90   96 3.82 2,406 96.18   0 0.00 2,501 100.00  
Poorer 1,412 52.78 1,263 47.22   23 0.85 2,652 99.15   146 5.47 2,528 94.53   1 0.02 2,674 99.98  
Middle 1,653 59.06 1,145 40.94   72 2.57 2,726 97.43   179 6.41 2,619 93.59   0 0.00 2,798 100.00  
Richer 2,086 70.68 865 29.32   412 13.96 2,539 86.04   255 8.63 2,696 91.37   18 0.60 2,933 99.40  
Richest 2,873 88.93 358 11.07   1,371 42.43 1,860 57.57   755 23.37 2,476 76.63   406 12.58 2,825 87.42  
Household size       < 0.001      0.330      0.033      0.003
 ≤ 5 5,916 67.78 2,812 32.22   1,184 13.56 7,544 86.44   923 10.58 7,805 89.42   297 3.40 8,431 96.60  
 > 5 3,141 57.86 2,287 42.14   697 12.83 4,731 87.17   508 9.36 4,920 90.64   128 2.36 5,300 97.64  
Children aged 5 and under in the household       < 0.001       < 0.001      0.008       < 0.001
No 3,785 67.62 1,813 32.38   894 15.97 4,704 84.03   624 11.14 4,975 88.86   220 3.94 5,378 96.06  
Yes 5,271 61.60 3,286 38.40   986 11.53 7,571 88.47   807 9.44 7,750 90.56   204 2.39 8,353 97.61  
Area       < 0.001       < 0.001       < 0.001       < 0.001
Urban 4,474 73.30 1,630 26.70   1,365 22.36 4,739 77.64   841 13.78 5,262 86.22   369 6.04 5,735 93.96  
Rural 4,583 56.91 3,470 43.09   515 6.40 7,537 93.60   590 7.32 7,463 92.68   56 0.69 7,996 99.31  
Department       < 0.001       < 0.001       < 0.001       < 0.001
Alibori 426 35.76 765 64.24   47 3.97 1,144 96.03   98 8.25 1,093 91.75   6 0.53 1,185 99.47  
Atacora 469 50.78 455 49.22   39 4.20 885 95.80   38 4.11 885 95.89   11 1.17 913 98.83  
Atlantique 1,385 70.36 584 29.64   355 18.02 1,614 81.98   359 18.24 1,610 81.76   126 6.38 1,843 93.62  
Borgou 788 52.63 709 47.37   131 8.72 1,367 91.28   178 11.90 1,319 88.10   30 2.03 1,467 97.97  
Collines 652 66.44 329 33.56   51 5.19 930 94.81   135 13.75 846 86.25   11 1.13 970 98.87  
Couffo 615 55.50 493 44.50   62 5.62 1,046 94.38   108 9.76 1,000 90.24   9 0.80 1,099 99.20  
Donga 316 42.67 424 57.33   40 5.35 701 94.65   41 5.52 700 94.48   2 0.26 739 99.74  
Littoral 839 98.54 12 1.46   293 34.35 559 65.65   246 28.83 606 71.17   135 15.90 716 84.10  
Mono 606 69.00 272 31.00   92 10.48 787 89.52   38 4.33 841 95.67   6 0.64 873 99.36  
Ouémé 1,261 77.27 371 22.73   328 20.07 1,305 79.93   121 7.44 1,511 92.56   60 3.65 1,573 96.35  
Plateau 690 70.11 294 29.89   125 12.68 859 87.32   15 1.50 969 98.50   5 0.56 979 99.44  
Zou 1,009 72.14 390 27.86   319 22.81 1,079 77.19   54 3.85 1,345 96.15   24 1.69 1,375 98.31