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Table 2 JMP classification of improved/unimproved water and sanitation facility types

From: Household access to basic drinking water, sanitation and hygiene facilities: secondary analysis of data from the demographic and health survey V, 2017–2018

Facility types Water Sanitation
Improved facilities Piped supplies
• Tap water in the dwelling, yard or plot
• Public standposts
Non-piped supplies
• Boreholes/tubewells
• Protected wells and springs
• Rainwater
• Packaged water, including bottled water and sachet water
• Delivered water, including tanker trucks and small carts
Networked sanitation
• Flush and pour flush toilets connected to sewers
On-site sanitation
• Flush and pour flush toilets or latrines connected to septic tanks or pits
• Ventilated improved pit latrines
• Pit latrines with slabs
• Composting toilets, including twin pit latrines and container-based systems
Unimproved facilities Non-piped supplies
• Unprotected wells and springs
On-site sanitation
• Pit latrines without slabs
• Hanging latrines
• Bucket latrines
  1. Source Adapted from WHO; UNICEF. Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines; WHO: Geneva, 2017; ISBN 978–92-4–151,289-3. [4]