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Table 1 WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) ladder for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services

From: Household access to basic drinking water, sanitation and hygiene facilities: secondary analysis of data from the demographic and health survey V, 2017–2018

Service level Water Sanitation Hygiene
Basic Drinking water from an improved source, provided collection time is not more than 30 min for a round trip, including queuing Use of improved facilities that are not shared with other households Availability of a handwashing facility on premises with soap and water
Limited Drinking water from an improved source for which collection time exceeds 30 min for a round trip, including queuing Use of improved facilities shared between two or more households Availability of a handwashing facility on premises without soap and water
Unimproved Drinking water from an unprotected dug well or unprotected spring Use of pit latrines without a slab or platform, hanging latrines or bucket latrines Not applicable
No service Surface water Open defecation No handwashing facility on premises
  1. Source Adapted from WHO; UNICEF. Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines; WHO: Geneva, 2017; ISBN 978–92-4–151,289-3. [4]