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Table 3 Crude and adjusted association between place of residence and prevalence of undiagnosed, untreated and undertreated hypertension among older adults in India (2017–18)

From: Decomposing the rural–urban gap in the prevalence of undiagnosed, untreated and under-treated hypertension among older adults in India

Predictors Undiagnosed Hypertension Untreated Hypertension Undertreated Hypertension
COR AOR COR AOR COR AOR
Place of Residence Urban ®       
Rural 1.68***
(1.44—1.95)
1.37***
(1.22—1.53)
1.38***
(1.16—1.63)
1.27**
(1.07—1.51)
0.63***
(0.54—0.75)
0.85**
(0.74—0.98)
Sex Male ®       
Female   0.70***
(0.6—0.81)
  0.92
(0.75—1.13)
  0.96
(0.81—1.12)
Age   0.96*
(0.92—1.00)
  1.02
(0.95—1.09)
  1.08**
(1.02—1.14)
Age squared   1.00
(0.99—1.00)
  0.99
(0.99—1.00)
  0.99**
(0.99—1.00)
Marital Status Others ®       
Currently married   1.05
(0.93—1.18)
  0.92
(0.76—1.11)
  0.82**
(0.69—0.98)
Religion Muslim ®       
Hindu   1.16*
(0.98—1.36)
  0.94
(0.75—1.17)
  0.84*
(0.7—1.00)
Others   1.16
(0.94—1.42)
  0.99
(0.72—1.35)
  1.02
(0.8—1.3)
Social Group SC ®       
ST   1.64***
(1.39—1.94)
  0.82
(0.61—1.11)
  0.7**
(0.55—0.89)
OBC   1.07
(0.94—1.22)
  0.83
(0.65—1.05)
  0.93
(0.79—1.09)
Others   1.04
(0.9—1.19)
  0.78**
(0.6—1.00)
  1.04
(0.88—1.24)
Economic Status Poorest ®       
Poorer   0.86**
(0.74—0.99)
  0.89
(0.69—1.13)
  1.14
(0.95—1.37)
Middle   0.84**
(0.71—1.00)
  0.77**
(0.61—0.97)
  1.2*
(1.00—1.46)
Richer   0.7***
(0.6—0.82)
  0.68**
(0.53—0.88)
  1.32**
(1.08—1.62)
Richest   0.68***
(0.57—0.81)
  0.56***
(0.44—0.72)
  1.14
(0.9—1.44)
Education Not literate ®       
Primary or below   0.81***
(0.71—0.92)
  0.98
(0.78—1.22)
  1.07
(0.91—1.25)
Secondary   0.75***
(0.64—0.88)
  1.13
(0.86—1.48)
  1.19
(0.89—1.58)
Higher secondary or above   0.88
(0.63—1.22)
  1.35**
(1.00—1.81)
  0.95
(0.73—1.24)
Work Status Not working ®       
Currently working   1.36***
(1.21—1.53)
  0.9
(0.74—1.09)
  0.78***
(0.67—0.91)
Health Insurance Not covered ®       
Covered   0.95
(0.84—1.07)
  0.96
(0.81—1.15)
  1.07
(0.92—1.24)
Region North ®       
Central   1.41***
(1.22—1.63)
  0.64***
(0.5—0.81)
  0.77**
(0.64—0.92)
East   1.17**
(1.03—1.34)
  0.77**
(0.63—0.94)
  1.15*
(0.98—1.34)
Northeast   0.87*
(0.74—1.01)
  1.17
(0.93—1.49)
  1.58***
(1.31—1.89)
West   1.57***
(1.36—1.81)
  0.56***
(0.42—0.75)
  0.93
(0.79—1.1)
South   1.48***
(1.26—1.73)
  0.38***
(0.3—0.48)
  1.11
(0.93—1.33)
Comorbidity None ®       
At least one   0.33***
(0.3—0.37)
  1.28**
(1.09—1.51)
  1.83***
(1.62—2.07)
Physical Activity Inactive ®       
Moderately active   1.07
(0.92—1.25)
  1.09
(0.85—1.39)
  1.21
(0.93—1.57)
Highly active   1.18**
(1.01—1.38)
  1.21*(0.98—1.5)   0.72***
(0.6—0.86)
Tobacco Consumption Never consumed ®       
Currently not consuming any   0.92
(0.73—1.15)
  1.24
(0.86—1.81)
  1.06
(0.78—1.44)
Smokes only   1.24**
(1.05—1.47)
  1.16
(0.89—1.5)
  0.71**
(0.58—0.88)
Uses smokeless tobacco only   1.28***
(1.13—1.44)
  1.08
(0.88—1.33)
  0.78**
(0.67—0.91)
Both smokable and smokeless   1.31*
(0.97—1.77)
  0.76
(0.44—1.3)
  0.52**
(0.32—0.87)
Body Mass Index Normal ®       
Underweight   1.14**
(1.00—1.3)
  0.99
(0.78—1.26)
  0.56***
(0.47—0.67)
Overweight   0.75***
(0.67—0.84)
  1.04
(0.88—1.23)
  1.53***
(1.33—1.75)
  1. ®Reference category; COR: Crude Odds Ratio, AOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio
  2. *** p < 0.001 ** p < 0.05 and * p < 0.1
  3. Source: Authors’ own calculations from Longitudinal Ageing Study in India, 2017–18 (LASI-Wave I)