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Table 1 Rural–urban differential in select characteristics of the study sample, LASI (2017-2018)

From: Decomposing the rural–urban gap in the prevalence of undiagnosed, untreated and under-treated hypertension among older adults in India

   Total   Rural   Urban  
Background characteristics Freq % Freq % Freq %
Place of Residence Rural 39,007 69.9     
Urban 20,603 30.1     
Sex Male 27,593 45.9 18,238 46.7 9355 43.9
Female 32,017 54.1 20,769 53.3 11,248 56.1
Age group 45–59 years 31,129 49.8 20,050 51.4 11,079 53.8
60 years & above 28,481 50.2 18,957 48.6 9524 46.2
Marital Status Currently married 44,881 74.2 29,566 75.0 15,315 72.4
Others 14,729 25.8 9441 25.0 5288 27.7
Religion Muslim 7085 11.0 3764 9.6 3321 14.2
Hindu 43,726 82.5 29,071 84.0 14,655 79.2
Others 8799 6.4 6172 6.4 2627 6.6
Social Group SC 10,036 19.4 7315 22.3 2721 12.7
ST 10,460 8.6 8089 10.8 2371 3.3
OBC 22,488 45.7 14,660 44.1 7828 49.3
Others 16,626 26.4 8943 22.8 7683 34.7
Economic Status Poorest 11,791 21.1 7614 20.6 4177 22.2
Poorer 12,021 21.3 7820 21.9 4201 19.9
Middle 12,039 20.4 7910 21.0 4129 19.1
Richer 12,014 19.6 7879 19.5 4135 20.0
Richest 11,745 17.6 7784 17.1 3961 18.7
Education Not literate 29,730 53.5 23,315 62.8 6415 32.0
Primary or below 13,201 20.6 8235 20.0 4966 22.0
Secondary 10,990 16.2 5539 12.5 5451 24.7
Higher secondary or above 5689 9.7 1918 4.7 3771 21.3
Work Status Never worked 16,330 26.1 9187 22.2 7143 35.4
Currently not working 17,094 29.5 11,236 29.9 5858 28.7
Currently working 26,186 44.3 18,584 48.0 7602 35.9
Health Insurance Covered 13,794 20.4 9643 21.0 4151 18.9
Not covered 45,816 79.7 29,364 79.0 16,452 81.1
Region North 10,976 12.7 6881 12.6 4095 12.8
Central 8181 21.0 6378 23.7 1803 14.7
East 10,735 23.7 8092 27.7 2643 14.5
Northeast 7726 3.4 5773 4.0 1953 2.1
West 7846 15.8 4086 13.1 3760 22.2
South 14,146 23.4 7797 18.9 6349 33.7
Comorbidity None 30,983 51.5 21,607 53.9 9376 45.7
At least one 28,627 48.6 17,400 46.1 11,227 54.3
Physical Activity Inactive 38,339 62.9 23,646 60.3 14,693 68.8
Moderately active 8609 14.6 5507 13.7 3102 16.8
Highly active 12,662 22.5 9854 26.0 2808 14.4
Tobacco Consumption Never consumed 37,603 62.3 22,665 57.2 14,938 74.1
Currently not consuming any 3291 4.9 2154 5.1 1137 4.4
Smokes only 7138 11.8 5350 13.5 8.68 7.7
Uses smokeless tobacco only 10,478 19.3 7961 22.1 12.22 13.0
Both smokable and smokeless 1100 1.8 877 2.1 223 0.9
Body Mass Index Normal 31,443 52.0 21,766 54.8 9677 45.5
Underweight 10,949 21.2 9170 26.2 1779 9.6
Overweight 17,218 26.8 8071 19.1 9147 44.8
Hypertension No 30,227 53.0 21,339 57.3 8888 43.1
Yes 29,383 47.0 17,668 42.7 11,715 56.9
TOTAL 59,610 100.0 39,007 69.9 20,603 30.1
  1. The percentages (%) are weighted
  2. Source: Authors’ own calculations from Longitudinal Ageing Study in India, 2017–18 (LASI-Wave I)