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Table 3 Odds ratio of men and women smoking

From: A gender-specific assessment of tobacco use risk factors: evidence from the latest Pakistan demographic and health survey

Variables LR Test for Men LR Test for Women
P -value < 0.001 P-value < 0.001
Age group
 15–19 years 0.00 [Reference] 0.00 [Reference]
 20–24 years 3.49*** (1.41,8.61) 1.55** (1.06, 2.26)
 25–29 years 3.66*** (1.51,8.87) 1.89*** (1.32, 2.72)
 30–34 years 3.71*** (1.53,8.97) 2.05*** (1.42, 2.95)
 35–39 years 4.78*** (1.98,11.55) 2.08*** (1.44, 2.99)
 40–44 years 5.21*** (2.14,12.64) 2.53*** (1.74, 3.69)
 45–49 years 5.77*** (2.38,13.99) 3.00*** (2.06, 4.37)
Province/Region of usual residence
 Punjab 0.00 [Reference] 0.00 [Reference]
 Sindh 0.88 (0.70,1.10) 3.22*** (2.65, 3.90)
 KPK 0.86 (0.67,1.10) 0.51*** (0.38, 0.69)
 Baluchistan 0.42*** (0.32, 0.55) 4.59*** (3.74, 5.64)
 GB 0.84 (0.59,1.18) 0.80 (0.57, 1.12)
 ICT 1.60*** (1.18,2.16) 1.11* (0.79, 1.55)
 AJK 1.39** (1.06,1.82) 0.75* (0.56, 1.00)
 FATA 1.51** (1.08,2.11) 0.18*** (0.10, 0.31)
Area of residence
 Urban 0.00 [Reference] 0.00 [Reference]
 Rural 0.66*** (0.56,0.78) 1.09 (0.94, 1.26)
Educational Level No education 0.00 [Reference] 0.00 [Reference]
 Primary 0.92 (0.73,1.15) 0.80** (0.65, 0.98)
 Secondary 0.83* (0.67,1.01) 0.67*** (0.54, 0.83)
 Higher 0.50*** (0.38,0.65) 0.46*** (0.34, 0.63)
Economic Status
 Poorest 0.00 [Reference] 0.00 [Reference]
 Poorer 0.84 (0.67,1.07) 0.86* (0.72, 1.02)
 Middle 0.84 (0.65,1.09) 0.81* (0.66, 1.00)
 Richer 0.75** (0.56,0.99) 0.58*** (0.45, 0.74)
 Richest 0.47*** (0.34,0.65) 0.43*** (0.32, 0.58)
Occupation
Unemployed 0.00 [Reference] 0.00 [Reference]
 Officers/ Managers/Professionals 1.10 (0.68,1.77) 1.34 (0.84, 2.15)
 Clerks/Workers 1.25 (0.81,1.95) 1.18** (1.00, 1.40)
Marital Status
Married 0.00 [Reference] 0.00 [Reference]
 Widowed 0.90 (0.37,2.18) 1.15 (0.81, 1.64)
 Divorced 0.55 (0.21,1.40) 1.72* (0.99, 2.97)
 Separated 2.88* (0.91,9.10) 3.19*** (1.63, 6.24)
Media Access
Not at all 0.00 [Reference] 0.00 [Reference]
 Less than once a week 1.12 (0.89,1.42) 1.04 (0.85, 1.28)
 At least once a week 1.09 (0.89,1.32) 1.18** (1.01, 1.38)
Domestic Violence
No 0.00 [Reference] 0.00 [Reference]
 Yes 1.10 (0.94,1.30) 1.26*** (1.10, 1.43)
 Don’t know   1.36 (0.88, 2.09)
Constant 0.191*** 0.034***
  1. Notes: (1) ‘*’, **., *** indicates 10, 5% & 1% level of significance respectively; (2) () Confidence interval at 95% level of significance