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Table 2 Percent distribution of men and women, smokers, and non-smokers – Pearson Chi square Test

From: A gender-specific assessment of tobacco use risk factors: evidence from the latest Pakistan demographic and health survey

Characteristics Men n Women n
non-smokers smokers non-smokers smokers
Age group Χ2 = 36.10   Χ2 = 51.74  
15˗19 years 87.76 12.24 49 94.64 5.36 728
20˗24 years 69.97 30.03 293 93.15 6.85 2219
25˗29 years 69.81 30.19 669 92.05 7.95 3143
30–34 years 68.77 31.23 762 91.93 8.07 2851
35–39 years 63.03 36.97 733 91.19 8.81 2736
40–44 years 62.07 37.93 580 90.11 9.89 1820
45–49 years 59.76 40.24 594 87.76 12.24 1560
Province/Region Χ2 = 73.20   Χ2 = 1.0e + 02  
Punjab 64.35 35.65 850 94.55 5.45 3396
Sindh 66.54 33.46 777 84.08 15.92 2738
KPK 67.26 32.74 504 97.14 2.86 2377
Baluchistan 78.53 21.47 517 75.90 24.10 1722
GB 68.57 31.43 210 94.82 5.18 984
ICT 58.71 41.29 264 95.76 4.24 1108
AJK 55.95 44.05 336 96.10 3.89 1720
FATA 54.05 45.95 222 98.62 1.38 1012
Area Χ2 = 2.38   Χ2 = 24.95  
Urban 64.47 35.53 1880 92.66 7.34 7247
Rural 66.89 33.11 1800 90.38 9.62 7810
Educational Level Χ2 = 74.10   Χ2 = 266.37  
No education 61.09 38.91 866 87.93 12.07 7624
Primary 60.38 39.62 626 93.29 6.71 2101
Secondary 63.29 36.71 1321 95.14 4.86 3130
Higher 77.62 22.38 867 96.82 3.18 2202
Economic Status Χ2 = 36.03   Χ2 = 270.46  
Poorest 61.94 38.06 670 85.27 14.73 2885
Poorer 64.49 35.51 797 89.91 10.09 3240
Middle 62.09 37.91 707 91.70 8.30 2963
Richer 64.32 35.68 723 94.05 5.95 2875
Richest 74.46 25.54 783 96.32 3.68 3094
Occupation group Χ2 = 27.30   Χ2 = 83.69  
Not working 72.88 27.12 118 92.09 7.91 12,745
Officers/ Managers 74.28 25.72 587 95.31 4.69 512
Clerical staff 63.66 36.34 2975 86.06 13.94 1800
Marital Status Χ2 = 7.26   Χ2 = 15.22  
Married 65.72 34.28 3617 91.63 8.37 14,492
Widowed 60.87 39.13 23 88.77 11.23 365
Divorced 76.92 23.08 26 87.50 12.50 136
No longer living together 35.71 64.29 14 81.25 18.75 64
Media Access Χ2 = 3.77   Χ2 = 37.07  
Not at all 63.33 36.67 990 90.01 9.99 6109
Less than once a week 65.29 34.71 628 90.63 9.38 1632
At least once a week 66.88 33.12 2062 92.89 7.11 7316
Domestic Violence Χ2 = 12.82   Χ2 = 60.41  
No 67.58 32.42 2363 92.99 7.00 8236
Yes 62.10 37.90 1314 89.8 10.20 6628
Don’t know 100 0.00 3 84.46 15.54 193
  1. Notes: KPK (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), GB (Gilgit Baltistan), ICT (Islamabad Capital Territory), AJK (Azad Jammu and Kashmir), FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas)