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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for the study sample (N = 1962)

From: Poor implementation of tobacco control measures and lack of education influences the intention to quit tobacco: a structural equation modelling approach

Variables N (%)
Age 43.2 (13.4%)
State (Region)  
  Bihar 304 (15.5%)
  Kerala 249 (12.7%)
  Madhya Pradesh 252 (12.8%)
  Maharashtra 589 (30.0%)
  Punjab 459 (23.4%)
  Telangana 109 (5.5%)
Location:  
  Rural 613 (31.2%)
  Semi-Urban 424 (21.6%)
  Urban 925 (47.1%)
Sex:  
  Males 1844 (94.0%)
  Females 118 (6.01%)
Education:  
  No formal schooling 447 (22.8%)
  The primary level of schooling 544 (27.7%)
  Intermediate level of schooling 500 (25.5%)
  High school 245 (12.5%)
  Graduation 210 (10.7%)
  Post-graduation 16 (0.82%)
Employment:  
  Unemployed 285 (14.5%)
  Self –employed 648 (33.0%)
  Employee for others 1029 (52.4%)
Duration of Habit:  
  Less than 5 years 435 (22.2%)
  6–10 years 641 (32.7%)
  11–20 years 438 (22.3%)
  More than 20 years 441 (22.5%)
Person who asked to quit:  
  No one 474 (32.3%)
  Parents 242 (16.5%)
  Relatives 336 (22.9%)
  Friends 86 (5.87%)
  Health providers (Doctors/Dentists) 328 (22.4%)
How soon after waking would you first use tobacco:  
  Within 31–60 min 1186 (60.4%)
  Within 5–30 min 492 (25.1%)
  Within 5 min 284 (14.5%)
Do you find it difficult to refrain from tobacco use in places where it is forbidden?  
  No 1410 (71.9%)
  Yes 548 (27.9%)
Time of the day you prefer using tobacco:  
  Early morning 359 (18.3%)
  During the day 772 (39.3%)
  After every meal 744 (37.9%)
  Nighttime before sleep 79 (4.03%)
Daily frequency of smoking:  
  5 or less 922 (47.1%)
  6–10 times 749 (38.2%)
  11–20 times 253 (12.9%)
  More than 20 times 35 (1.79%)
Duration of smoking:  
  Less than 5 years 435 (22.2%)
  6–10 years 641 (32.7%)
  11–20 years 438 (22.3%)
  More than 20 years 441 (22.5%)
Daily frequency of Smokeless tobacco (n = 817):  
  5 or less 491 (60.1%)
  6–10 times 239 (29.3%)
  11–20 times 79 (9.67%)
  More than 20 times 8 (0.98%)
Duration of Smokeless tobacco (n = 817):  
  Less than 5 years 239 (29.26%)
  6–10 years 256 (31.3%)
  11–20 years 163 (20%)
  More than 20 years 159 (19.5%)
Have you used tobacco even when you were sick?  
  No 983 (50.1%)
  Yes 975 (49.7%)
Influencers to stop smoking:  
  No influencers 474 (24.2%)
  One influencer 996 (50.8%)
  Two influencers 225 (11.5%)
  Three influencers 226 (11.5%)
  Four or more influencers 41 (2.09%)
Tobacco product used  
  Cigarette 674 (34.4%)
  Bidis (or Equivalent – Rolled cigarettes) 715 (36.4%)
  Shisha 44 (2.24%)
  Smokeless tobacco (Tambakoo) 1132 (57.7%)
  Betel quid 187 (9.53%)
  Other products used 1.40 (0.73)
Intention to quit:  
  Now 857 (43.7%)
  In the next six months 375 (19.1%)
  Sometime in the future, beyond six months 172 (8.77%)
  Not decided 438 (22.3%)
  Never 120 (6.12%)
  1. Data was sumamrized as counts and percentages for categorical variables and mean ± SD for continuous variables
  2. The variable was dummy coded as yes/no to take into account mixed users