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Table 5 Outcomes for measures of stigma

From: teen Mental Health First Aid: 12-month outcomes from a cluster crossover randomized controlled trial evaluation of a universal program to help adolescents better support peers with a mental health problem

Stigma outcomesa Baseline 1-year follow up      
PFAb tMHFAc PFAd tMHFAe      
M SD M SD M SD M SD M diff 95% CI p df ICCg
Social distance
 John 1.98 0.64 1.96 0.64 1.97 0.64 1.87 0.62 -0.07 -0.14–0.00 0.065 0.15 .014
 Jeanie 1.78 0.65 1.71 0.64 1.74 0.63 1.64 0.63 -0.01 -0.08–0.07 0.879 0 .000
Weak-not-sickh
 John 2.09 0.83 1.97 0.81 1.95 0.86 1.83 0.83 -0.03 -0.12–0.05 0.422 0.06b .029
 Jeanie 2.25 0.85 2.15 0.87 2.07 0.87 1.93 0.88 -0.07 -0.16–0.02 0.136 0.09b .043
Dangerous/Unpredictableh
 John 2.51 0.75 2.39 0.75 2.35 0.79 2.15 0.78 -0.09 -0.19–0.01 0.067 0.15b .025
 Jeanie 2.01 0.78 1.86 0.76 1.93 0.84 1.74 0.81 -0.05 -0.15–0.05 0.368 0.06b .008
Would not tell anyoneh
 John 2.53 1.08 2.41 1.10 2.61 1.07 2.35 0.99 -0.17 -0.30—-0.03 0.016 0.17b .005
 Jeanie 2.46 1.09 2.37 1.08 2.52 1.08 2.20 1.03 -0.24 -0.38—-0.09 0.002 0.24b .000
  1. All mixed models were adjusted for school, year, gender, age and K6 scores. Boldface indicates statistical significance
  2. aFor all stigma items a reduction in scores was a positive outcome, indicating lower stigmatising beliefs
  3. bFor John vignette depicting peer with symptoms of depression & suicide risk n = 791; for Jeanie vignette depicting peer with symptoms of social anxiety n = 769
  4. cFor John vignette n = 807; for Jeanie vignette n = 792
  5. dFor John vignette n = 429; for Jeanie vignette n = 409
  6. eFor John vignette n = 465; for Jeanie vignette n = 446
  7. fLarge effect size Cohen’s d = 0.8, medium effect size d = 0.5, small effect size d = 0.2
  8. gPeriod-cluster intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) indicate the proportion of variability in the outcome attributable across clusters
  9. hCalculated on change over time rather than difference at follow-up due to baseline imbalances