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Table 4 Mean scores and changes in alcohol, tobacco, and substance use before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

From: Lifestyle behaviors in Swedish university students before and during the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic: a cohort study

  All1 Women2 Men2  ≤ 25 years3  > 25 years3
Alcohol
  Mean score at baseline 5.3 5.0 5.4 5.0 5.5
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 -0.8
(-1.0, -0.6)
-0.7
(-1.0, -0.5)
-1.1
(-1.2, -1.0)
-0.9
(-1.2, -0.6)
-0.6
(-1.0, -0.3)
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 -0.5
(-0.7, -0.2)
-0.4
(-0.7, -0.1)
-0.7
(-1.3, -0.1)
-0.5
(-0.9, -0.2)
-0.4
(-0.8, -0.1)
Tobacco
  Mean score at baseline 6.0 3.4 4.9 4.8 5.9
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 -0.4
(-0.6, -0.2)
-0.5
(-0.7, -0.2)
-0.2
(-0.6, 0.2)
-0.3
(-0.6, -0.1)
-0.5
(-0.8, -0.1)
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 -0.3
(-0.5, -0.1)
-0.4
(-0.7, -0.2)
0.1
(-0.3, 0.6)
0.0
(-0.2, 0.3)
-0.1
(-1.1, -0.3)
Cannabis
  Mean score at baseline 0.8 0.3 0.7 0.8 0.4
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 -0.0
(-0.1, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.1, 0.1)
-0.1
(-0.3, 0.1)
-0.0
(-0.2, 0.1)
-0.1
(-0.2, -0.0)
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 -0.0
(-0.1, 0.1)
-0.0
(-0.1, 1.0)
-0.0
(-0.3, 0.3)
-0.0
(-0.3, 0.1)
0.0
(-0.1, 0.2)
Cocaine
  Mean score at baseline 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 -0.0
(-0.1, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.0, 0.05)
-0.1
(-0.2, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.1, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.1, 0.1)
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 -0.0
(-0.1, 0.1)
0.0
(-0.1, 0.1)
-0.1
(-0.2, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.1, 0.1)
-0.0
(-0.1, 1.0)
Amphetamine
  Mean score at baseline 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.4
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 -0.0
(-0.1, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.1, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.2, 0.1)
-0.0
(-0.1, 0.1)
-0.1
(-0.2, 0.0)
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 -0.0
(-0.1, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.2, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.1, 0.1)
0.0
(-0.0, 0.1)
-0.1
(-0.2, 0.0)
Solvents
  Mean score at baseline 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 -0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.1, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.1, 0.0)
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 -0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.1, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.1, 0.0)
0.0
(-0.0, 0.1)
Sedatives
  Mean score at baseline 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 -0.1
(-0.2, -0.0)
-0.1
(-0.2, 0.0)
-0.1
(-0.3, 0.1)
-0.1
(-0.2, -0.0)
-0.1
(-0.2, 0.1)
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 -0.1
(-0.2, -0.0)
-0.1
(-0.2, 0.0)
-0.1
(-0.3, 0.1)
-0.1
(-0.2, -0.0)
-0.1
(-0.2, 0.0)
Hallucinogens
  Mean score at baseline 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.1, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
0.0
(-0.0, 0.1)
0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
0.0
(-0.0, 0.1)
Opiates
  Mean score at baseline 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 -0.0
(-0.1, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.1, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
-0.1
(-0.1, -0.0)
  Mean difference in risk score (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 -0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.1, 0.0)
0.0
(-0.0, 0.1)
-0.0
(-0.0, 0.0)
-0.0
(-0.1, 0.1)
  1. Abbreviations, FU1 follow-up 1 (March 14, 2020 to June 15, 2020), FU2 follow-up 2 (June 16, 2020 to September 10, 2020)
  2. 1Adjusted for follow-up period, age, and sex
  3. 2Adjusted for follow-up period and age
  4. 3Adjusted for follow-up period and sex