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Table 3 Country variation in timing/strictness of policies at each analysis period

From: The relative effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions on wave one Covid-19 mortality: natural experiment in 130 countries

1. Policies introduced before (N = 130) Mean (S.D.) / n(%) 2. Policies introduced up to 14 days post-first death (N = 126) Mean (S.D.) / n(%)
Cumulative deaths (24 days) 182.4 (600.9) Cumulative deaths (38 days) 760.6 (2499.9)
Cumulative deaths (24 days, per million population) 8.4 (17.6) Cumulative deaths (38 days, per million population) 24.3 (62.1)
School (strictness)   School (timeliness)   School (strictness)   School (timeliness)  
Not introduced 36 (27.7%) Not introduced 36 (27.7%) Not introduced 12 (9.5%) Not introduced 12 (9.5%)
Least strict 1 (0.8%) 0-10 days before first death 43 (33.1%) Least strict 1 (0.8%) Introduced before first death 90 (71.4%)
2 8 (6.2%) 11-20 days before first death 41 (31.5%) 2 5 (4.0%) 0-7 days after first death 17 (13.5%)
3 85 (65.4%) 21+ days before first death 10 (7.7%) 3 108 (85.7%) 8-14 days after first death 7 (5.6%)
Work (strictness)   Work (timeliness)   Work (strictness)   Work (timeliness)  
Not introduced 65 (50.0%) Not introduced 65 (50.0%) Not introduced 29 (23.0%) Not introduced 29 (23.0%)
Least strict 14 (10.8%) 0-10 days before first death 43 (33.1%) Least strict 12 (9.5%) Introduced before first death 62 (49.2%)
2 25 (19.2%) 11-20 days before first death 17 (13.1%) 2 28 (22.2%) 0-7 days after first death 27 (21.4%)
3 26 (20.0%) 21+ days before first death 5 (3.8%) 3 57 (45.2%) 8-14 days after first death 8 (6.3%)
Events (strictness)   Events (timeliness)   Events (strictness)   Events (timeliness)  
Not introduced 34 (26.2%) Not introduced 34 (26.2%) Not introduced 14 (11.1%) Not introduced 14 (11.1%)
Least strict 10 (7.7%) 0-10 days before first death 46 (35.4%) Least strict 5 (4.0%) Introduced before first death 92 (73.0%)
2 86 (66.2%) 11-20 days before first death 37 (28.5%) 2 107 (84.9%) 0-7 days after first death 15 (11.9%)
   21+ days before first death 13 (10.0%)    8-14 days after first death 5 (4.0%)
Gatherings (strictness)   Gatherings (timeliness)   Gatherings (strictness)   Gatherings (timeliness)  
Not introduced 52 (40.0%) Not introduced 52 (40.0%) Not introduced 25 (19.8%) Not introduced 25 (19.8%)
Least strict 4 (3.1%) 0-10 days before first death 40 (30.8%) Least strict 4 (3.2%) Introduced before first death 76 (60.3%)
2 7 (5.4%) 11-20 days before first death 30 (23.1%) 2 5 (4.0%) 0-7 days after first death 21 (16.7%)
3 34 (26.2%) 21+ days before first death 8 (6.2%) 3 33 (26.2%) 8-14 days after first death 4 (3.2%)
4 33 (25.4%)    4 59 (46.8%)   
Transport (strictness)   Transport (timeliness)   Transport (strictness)   Transport (timeliness)  
Not introduced 92 (70.8%) Not introduced 92 (70.8%) Not introduced 65 (51.6%) Not introduced 65 (51.6%)
Least strict 18 (13.8%) 0-10 days before first death 25 (19.2%) Least strict 32 (25.4%) Introduced before first death 36 (28.6%)
2 20 (15.4%) 11-20 days before first death 9 (6.9%) 2 29 (23.0%) 0-7 days after first death 20 (15.9%)
   21+ days before first death 4 (3.1%)    8-14 days after first death 5 (4.0%)
Stay home (strictness)   Stay home (timeliness)   Stay home (strictness)   Stay home (timeliness)  
Not introduced 81 (62.3%) Not introduced 81 (62.3%) Not introduced 37 (29.4%) Not introduced 37 (29.4%)
Least strict 17 (13.1%) 0-10 days before first death 30 (23.1%) Least strict 25 (19.8%) Introduced before first death 48 (38.1%)
2 20 (15.4%) 11-20 days before first death 16 (12.3%) 2 49 (38.9%) 0-7 days after first death 27 (21.4%)
3 12 (9.2%) 21+ days before first death 3 (2.3%) 3 15 (11.9%) 8-14 days after first death 14 (11.1%)
Internal movement (strictness)   Internal movement (timeliness) Internal movement (strictness)   Internal movement (timeliness)  
Not introduced 79 (60.8%) Not introduced 79 (60.8%) Not introduced 38 (30.2%) Not introduced 38 (30.2%)
Least strict 17 (13.1%) 0-10 days before first death 33 (25.4%) Least strict 25 (19.8%) Introduced before first death 49 (38.9%)
2 34 (26.2%) 11-20 days before first death 15 (11.5%) 2 63 (50.0%) 0-7 days after first death 21 (16.7%)
   21+ days before first death 3 (2.3%)    8-14 days after first death 18 (14.3%)
Travel (strictness)   Travel (timeliness)   Travel (strictness)   Travel (timeliness)  
Not introduced 16 (12.3%) Not introduced 16 (12.3%) Not introduced 5 (4.0%) Not introduced 5 (4.0%)
Least strict 13 (10.0%) 0-10 days before first death 23 (17.7%) Least strict 1 (0.8%) Introduced before first death 110 (87.3%)
2 9 (6.9%) 11-20 days before first death 22 (16.9%) 2 5 (4.0%) 0-7 days after first death 9 (7.1%)
3 33 (25.4%) 21+ days before first death 69 (53.1%) 3 33 (26.2%) 8-14 days after first death 2 (1.6%)
4 59 (45.4%)    4 82 (65.1%)   
Public information (strictness)   Public information (timeliness)   Public information (strictness)   Public information (timeliness)  
Not introduced 12 (9.2%) Not introduced 12 (9.2%) Not introduced 3 (2.4%) Not introduced 3 (2.4%)
Least strict 10 (7.7%) 0-10 days before first death 12 (9.2%) Least strict 6 (4.8%) Introduced before first death 114 (90.5%)
2 108 (83.1%) 11-20 days before first death 26 (20.0%) 2 117 (92.9%) 0-7 days after first death 6 (4.8%)
   21+ days before first death 80 (61.5%)    8-14 days after first death 3 (2.4%)
Testing (strictness)   Testing (timeliness)   Testing (strictness)   Testing (timeliness)  
Not introduced 19 (14.6%) Not introduced 19 (14.6%) Not introduced 11 (8.7%) Not introduced 11 (8.7%)
Least strict 76 (58.5%) 0-10 days before first death 18 (13.8%) Least strict 61 (48.4%) Introduced before first death 108 (85.7%)
2 30 (23.1%) 11-20 days before first death 27 (20.8%) 2 43 (34.1%) 0-7 days after first death 3 (2.4%)
3 5 (3.8%) 21+ days before first death 66 (50.8%) 3 11 (8.7%) 8-14 days after first death 4 (3.2%)
Contact tracing (strictness)   Contact tracing (timeliness)   Contact tracing (strictness)   Contact tracing (timeliness)  
Not introduced 29 (22.3%) Not introduced 29 (22.3%) Not introduced 17 (13.5%) Not introduced 17 (13.5%)
Least strict 44 (33.8%) 0-10 days before first death 21 (16.2%) Least strict 48 (38.1%) Introduced before first death 98 (77.8%)
2 57 (43.8%) 11-20 days before first death 29 (22.3%) 2 61 (48.4%) 0-7 days after first death 8 (6.3%)
   21+ days before first death 51 (39.2%)    8-14 days after first death 3 (2.4%)