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Table 1 Characteristics of reviewed publications

From: Implementation practice models for development in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review of peer-reviewed literature

Author/date Title Population Region Implementation model Main outcomes reported Significant Effect
Longfield 2011 [43] Increasing safer sexual behavior among Lao kathoy through an integrated social marketing approach LGBTQ +  Southeast Asia PERForM Intervention awareness/reactions; Behavioral outcomes
Increased levels of condom and water-based lubricant use. Improved levels of knowledge about the importance of consistent condom use
No positive significant effect reported that could be attributed to the intervention
Meekers 2005 [44] The impact on condom use of the "100% Jeune" social marketing program in Cameroon Adolescent Cohort (15 to 24) Sub-Saharan Africa Health Belief Model, Social Learning Theory, and Theory of Reasoned Action Pre-behavioral/intermediate outcomes; Behavioral outcomes
Increased percentage of youth who used a condom during last sexual intercourse with regular partner
Significant changes in perceived condom attributes and access, self-efficacy, and perceived social support
Gutierrez 2010 [45] Community-based prevention leads to an increase in condom use and a reduction in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW): the Frontiers Prevention Project (FPP) evaluation results LGBTQ +  South Asia Frontiers Prevention Project Behavioral outcomes
Significant correlation between increased condom use with regular partners and lower probability of STI sero-positivity
Frontiers Prevention Project intervention demonstrated a positive significant effect for condom use with female partners and for syphilis and HSV 2 sero-positivity
Kassegne 2011 [46] Evaluation of a social marketing intervention promoting oral rehydration salts in Burundi Women Sub-Saharan Africa PERForM, PSI Behavior Change Framework Behavioral outcomes
Greater use of ORASEL and with significant improvements in perceived availability, knowledge of the signs of diarrhea and dehydration, social support, and self-efficacy
Positive significant association between ORASEL use and behavioral determinants
Wood 2012 [47] Understanding why women adopt and sustain home water treatment: Insights from the Malawi antenatal care program Women Sub-Saharan Africa The Transtheoretical Model, The Diffusion of Innovations Theory, Consumer Purchase Decision Process Pre-behavioral/intermediate outcomes; Behavioral outcomes
Increased awareness of the need to treat water, encouraged trial use, and supported continuing use
No positive significant effect reported
Agha 2021 [1] Understanding how social norms affect modern contraceptive use Adolescent Cohort (15 to 24) Sub-Saharan Africa Fogg Behavior Model Pre-behavioral/intermediate outcomes; Behavioral outcomes
Social norms that discourage contraception had a statistically significant negative association with contraceptive use
Negative statistically significant association with contraceptive use in relation to social norms that discourage contraception
Sarrassat 2015 [48] Behavior Change After 20 Months of a Radio Campaign Addressing Key Lifesaving Family Behaviors for Child Survival: Midline Results From a Cluster Randomized Trial in Rural Burkina Faso Women Sub-Saharan Africa SATURATION +  Behavioral outcomes
Improvement in episodic behaviors such as care seeking for diarrhea, saving money during pregnancy, and obtaining treatment for fast/difficult breathing
Positive significant effects on care seeking behaviors
Engl 2019 [49] CUBES: A practical toolkit to measure enablers and barriers to behavior for effective intervention design Men Sub-Saharan Africa CUBES Intervention awareness/reactions; Pre-behavioral/intermediate outcomes; Behavioral outcomes
Men developed positive as well as negative beliefs, influenced by individuals around them, as they move through various stages of change
No positive significant effect reported
Ingabire 2018 [50] Evaluation of a multi-level intervention to improve postpartum intrauterine device services in Rwanda Women Sub-Saharan Africa Theory Of Planned Behavior Intervention awareness/reactions; Behavioral outcomes
Increased level of postpartum intrauterine device insertion
No positive significant effect reported
Kim 2019 [51] A process evaluation of the quality improvement collaborative for a community-based family planning learning site in Uganda Women Sub-Saharan Africa Quality Improvement Model & Collaborative Improvement Model Intervention awareness/reactions; Behavioral outcomes
Increased learning through midwife mentorships and positive trends in the number of women on a family planning service
No positive significant effect reported
Sabin 2020 [52] Retention in hiv care among hiv-seropositive pregnant and postpartum women in uganda: Results of a randomized controlled trial Women Sub-Saharan Africa WPM-based intervention, IMB model Behavioral outcomes
Retention in HIV Care for pregnant and postpartum women
No positive significant effect was reported
Coulibaly 2020 [53] Implementing performance-based financing in peripheral health centres in Mali: what can we learn from it? Rural Sub-Saharan Africa Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research Intervention awareness/reactions; Pre-behavioral/intermediate outcomes
High-performing centers exercised leadership and commitment more strongly than low-performing ones
No positive significant effect was reported
Wang 2016 [54] The Impact of Teachers' Modifications of an Evidenced-Based HIV Prevention Intervention on Program Outcomes Teachers Latin America and Caribbean Focus on Youth Caribbean Pre-behavioral/intermediate outcomes; Behavioral outcomes
Heavy modifications of FOYC lessons led to poorer student outcomes
Increased significant effect among students in the teacher groups over the 12-month follow up
Cummings 2017 [55] A complex intervention to improve implementation of World Health Organization guidelines for diagnosis of severe illness in low-income settings: a quasi-experimental study from Uganda Men Sub-Saharan Africa Behavior Change Wheel, COM-B Pre-behavioral/intermediate outcomes; Behavioral outcomes
Increased likelihood of patients being diagnosed with sepsis and severe respiratory distress
Significant increases in site-adjusted likelihood of initial assessment of temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, mental status, and pulse oximetry
Johri 2020 [56] Social and Behavior Change Communication Interventions Delivered Face-to-Face and by a Mobile Phone to Strengthen Vaccination Uptake and Improve Child Health in Rural India: Randomized Pilot Study Rural India Tika Vaani model Pre-behavioral/intermediate outcomes; Behavioral outcomes
Increased levels of health knowledge
Statistical significant results were shown in higher basic health knowledge among the intervention group
Agha 2019 [25] Use of the Fogg Behavior Model to Assess the Impact of a Social Marketing Campaign on Condom Use in Pakistan Men Southeast Asia Fogg Behavior Model Pre-behavioral/intermediate outcomes; Behavioral outcomes
The odds of condom use among men with high motivation and high ability were 34 times higher than the odds of condom use among men with low motivation and low ability
Statistically significant association between self-reported condom use at least sex and categories of motivation and ability
Saggurti 2013 [57] Effects of a health care provider intervention in reduction of sexual risk and related outcomes in economically marginal communities in Mumbai, India Men India Narrative Intervention Model Pre-behavioral/intermediate outcomes; Behavioral outcomes
Patients who received treatment for gupt rog from trained providers reported receiving significantly higher rates of services than those who received services from untrained providers
Positive significant effect of the intervention in primary care settings for reducing sexual risk among married men
Sharma 2020 [58] Evaluation of a community-based intervention for health and economic empowerment of marginalized women in India Women India Community engagement model Intervention awareness/reactions; Behavioral outcomes
Increased awareness regarding maternal and child health among women
No positive significant effect was reported
Dickson-Gomez 2018 [59] A social systems analysis of implementation of El Salvador's national HIV combination prevention: a research agenda for evaluating Global Health Initiatives LGBTQ +  Latin America and Caribbean Van Olmen's Health Systems Dynamic framework Pre-behavioral/intermediate outcomes; Behavioral outcomes
Improved access to HIV prevention and care
No positive significant effect was reported
Wichaidit 2019 [60] Effect of an equipment-behavior change intervention on handwashing behavior among primary school children in Kenya: the Povu Poa school pilot study School staff Sub-Saharan Africa Social Norms Theory Behavioral outcomes
Increased rates of handwashing and availability of water and soap
Probability of handwashing with soap after toileting post-intervention were significantly higher
Penn-Kekana 2018 [61] Process evaluation of a social franchising model to improve maternal health: evidence from a multi-methods study in Uttar Pradesh, India Women India Social franchising model Intervention awareness/reactions; Behavioral outcomes
Sky health providers had better knowledge and self-reported practice than comparable health providers
No positive significant effect was reported
Ma 2018 [62] Clan-involved approaches to increasing antenatal care use in a rural minority area of China: implementation research Women East Asia (China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia) Social Cognitive Theory, Diffusions of Innovations Theory, & Communication Theory Behavioral outcomes
Significant increase in awareness and uptake of antenatal care
Positive significant effect related to increased awareness of ANC
Hoddinott 2018 [63] Nutrition behaviour change communication causes sustained effects on IYCN knowledge in two cluster-randomised trials in Bangladesh Women Southeast Asia Behavior Change Communication Intervention Behavioral outcomes
Behavior change communication improved infant and young child nutrition knowledge in the first year of the intervention
Positive significant effects of levels of knowledge
Babazadeh 2019 [64] Cognitive factors associated with brucellosis preventive behaviours among diagnosed patients: an application of Empowerment Model Urban MENA Empowerment Model Intervention awareness/reactions; Behavioral outcomes
Significant effect was found on Brucellosis Preventive Behaviors by demographic variables
Level of education, knowledge, and self-efficacy were found to be positive significant predictors
Murray 2015 [65] The Saturation + Approach to Behavior Change: Case Study of a Child Survival Radio Campaign in Burkina Faso Women Sub-Saharan Africa SATURATION +  Behavioral outcomes
The successful impact that the 3 principles of the Saturation + approach has on behavior change
No positive significant effect was reported. a