Skip to main content

Table 4 Association between COVID-19 related knowledge and Fear about Severe COVID-19

From: Knowledge deficit and fear of COVID-19 among higher education students during the first wave of the pandemic and implications for public health: a multi-country cross-sectional survey

Variables Category Afraid Unafraid P Value Crude OR 95%CI lower 95%CI upper Adjusted ORa 95%CI lower 95%CI upper
Age group 17–19 years 7293 7439 0.22 1 ref ref 1 ref ref
20–22 years 18,713 21,631 < 0.01 0.88 0.84 0.91 0.98 0.94 1.03
23-25 years 9631 12,466 < 0.01 0.78 0.75 0.82 1.00 0.94 1.05
26–28 years 3239 4068 < 0.01 0.81 0.76 0.85 1.11 1.03 1.19
> = 29 years 4926 4757 0.03 1.05 1.003 1.11 1.24 1.16 1.33
Sex Male 9305 16,145 < 0.01 1 ref ref 1 Ref Ref
female 34,216 33,888 < 0.01 1.75 1.70 1.80 1.73 1.67 1.79
X 281 328 < 0.01 1.48 1.26 1.74 1.40 1.16 1.68
Educational level Bachelor 29,272 31,704 < 0.01 1 ref ref 1 ref Ref
Master 9483 12,421 < 0.01 0.82 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.87 0.94
PhD 1690 2202 < 0.01 0.83 0.77 0.88 0.90 0.83 0.98
other 2446 3022 < 0.01 0.87 0.82 0.92 0.94 0.88 1.01
Field of study Non- health field 33,534 37,908 < 0.01 1 ref ref 1 Ref Ref
health 8070 10,908 < 0.01 0.84 0.81 0.87 0.80 0.77 0.84
Underlying medical condition None 34,459 44,903 < 0.01 1 ref ref 1 ref Ref
present 1082 920 < 001 2.38 2.28 2.47 2.50 2.38 2.62
Prefer not to say 8192 4485 < 001 1.53 1.4 1.67 1.71 1.54 1.91
Personal network infection history Yes 17,631 18,974 < 001 1 ref ref 1 ref ref
No 26,085 31,298 < 001 0.89 0.87 0.92 1.04 1.01 1.07
Govt Timely info. Strongly agree 4186 6235   ref ref ref 1 ref ref
agree 14,341 18,607 < 001 1.08 1.03 1.12 1.12 1.06 1.18
Neither agree nor disagree 9533 9909 < 001 1.24 1.18 1.30 1.24 1.17 1.32
disagree 10,015 10,000 < 001 1.37 1.30 1.43 1.28 1.21 1.36
Strongly agree 4748 4467 < 001 1.42 1.34 1.50 1.33 1.24 1.42
Total knowledge Good 29,576 36,435 < 0.01 ref ref ref ref ref Ref
Poor 12,790 12,472 < 0.01 1.26 1.22 1.30 1.36 1.31 1.40
Variables Mean β SD P-value Crude OR 95%CI lower 95%CI upper Adjusted ORa 95%CI lower 95%CI upper
Risk perception 4.14 0.15 0.003 < 0.01 1.16 1.15 1.17 1.166 1.15 1.17
Alcohol use changea −0.34 0.08 0.009 < 0.01 1.06 1.04 1.08 1.08 1.06 1.10
Smoking increasea −0.097 −0.02 0.01 < 0.01 0.95 0.92 0.96 0.97 0.95 0.99
Moderate physical activity increasea −0.42 −0.01 0.004 < 0.01 0.96 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.97 0.99
Vigorous physical activity increasea −0.144 0.002 0.005 0.55 1.006 0.99 1.01 1.00 0.99 1.01
Sufficient
Financial resources increasea
−0.379 − 0.11 0.007 < 0.01 0.86 0.85 0.88 0.89 0.88 0.90
Measurement adherence 8.023 0.11 0.004 < 0.01 1.148 1.14 1.15 1.12 1.11 1.13
  1. aIncrease– refers to the positive increase in a variable during the COVID-19 minus before the COVID-19 pandemic measurements