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Table 3 Prevalence (95% Confidence Intervals) of health outcomes by socio-demographic characteristics and morbidity status

From: Burden, patterns, and impact of multimorbidity in North India: findings from a rural population-based study

  Disability (n = 89) Depression (n = 68) Low self-rated health (n = 155)
Total (n = 3213) 2.8 [2.3–3.4] 2.1 [1.7–2.7] 61.5 [59.8–63.1]
Age % [95% CI] % [95% CI] % [95% CI]
 30–44 years (n = 1055) 0.5 [0.2–1.1] 1.8 [1.2–2.8] 44.1 [41.2–47.2]
 45–59 years (n = 1259) 1.4 [0.9–2.3] 1.7 [1.1–2.6] 63.5 [60.8–66.1]
 ≥60 years (n = 912) 7.2 [5.7–9.1] 3.1 [2.1–4.4] 78.6 [75.8–81.2]
Gender
 Men (n = 1478) 2.4 [1.7–3.3] 0.9 [0.6–1.6] 53.3 [50.8–55.8]
 Women (n = 1735) 3.1 [2.4–4.0] 3.1 [2.4–4.0] 68.4 [66.2–70.6]
Marital status
 Currently Married (n = 2748) 2.1 [1.6–2.7] 1.9 [1.4–2.4] 59.9 [58.1–61.7]
 Widow/Widower/ separated / divorced (n = 399) 7.8 [5.5–10.8] 4.0 [2.5–6.4] 76.2 [71.8–80.1]
 Never Married (n = 66) 1.5 [0.2–10.0] 1.5 [0.2–10.0] 37.9 [27.0–50.1]
Education status
 College graduation and above (n = 147) 0.7 [0.1–4.7] 0.0 44.9 [37.1–53.0]
 High school or secondary (n = 2219) 1.8 [1.4–2.5] 1.4 [0.9–1.9] 56 [53.9–58.0]
 Up to primary (n = 847) 5.5 [4.2–7.3] 4.5 [3.3–6.1] 78.7 [75.9–81.4]
Occupation
 Professional/Medium and big business owner (n = 166) 0.6 [0.1–4.2] 0.0 46.4 [38.9–54.0]
 Skilled labourer/small business (n = 314) 0.3 [0.0–2.2] 0.6 [0.2–2.5] 43 [37.6–48.5]
 Unskilled/semiskilled (n = 910) 0.5 [0.2–1.3] 1.5 [0.9–2.6] 51.5 [48.3–54.8]
 Homemaker (n = 1490) 2.1 [1.5–2.9] 2.3 [1.7–3.3] 68.1 [65.7–70.4]
Wealth index
 Low (n = 1143) 2.7 [1.9–3.8] 3.6 [2.7–4.8] 65.4 [62.6–68.1]
 Medium (n = 1015) 3.2 [2.2–4.4] 1.8 [1.1–2.8] 59.4 [56.4–62.4]
 High (n = 1050) 2.5 [1.7–3.6] 0.7 [0.3–1.4] 59 [56.0–62.0]
Physical activity
 Yes (n = 2692) 1.9 [1.4–2.4] 1.7 [1.3–2.3] 59.2 [57.3–61.0]
 No (n = 521) 7.5 [5.5–10.1] 4.2 [2.8–6.3] 73.3 [69.4–76.9]
Ever alcohol use
 Yes (n = 814) 2.5 [1.6–3.8] 1.0 [0.5–2.0] 54.9 [51.5–58.3]
 No (n = 2399) 2.9 [2.3–3.6] 2.5 [1.9–3.2] 63.7 [61.7–65.6]
Ever tobacco use
 Yes (n = 481) 2.9 [1.7–4.9] 1.5 [0.7–3.0] 60.9 [56.5–65.2]
 No (n = 2732) 2.7 [2.2–3.4] 2.2 [1.7–2.9] 61.6 [59.7–63.4]
BMI
 Under-weight (n = 171) 8.2 [4.9–13.4] 5.8 [3.2–10.5] 71.3 [64.1–77.6]
 Normal (n = 640) 3.8 [2.5–5.5] 2.2 [1.3–3.7] 61.6 [57.7–65.3]
 Overweight (n = 469) 1.9 [1.0–3.6] 2.3 [1.3–4.2] 57.6 [53.0–62.0]
 Obese (n = 1933) 2.2 [1.6–2.9] 1.7 [1.2–2.4] 61.5 [59.3–63.7]
Abdominal obesity
 Normal (n = 830) 3.3 [2.2–4.7] 3.1 [2.1–4.6] 58.3 [54.9–61.6]
 Central obesity (n = 2383) 2.6 [2.0–3.3] 1.8 [1.3–2.4] 62.6 [60.6–64.5]
No of morbidities
 0 (n = 1714) 0.9 (0.6–1.5) 1.5 (1.0–2.2) 51.1 (48.7–53.5)
 1 (n = 920) 3 (2.1–4.4) 1.8 (1.2–3.0) 65.0 (61.9–68.0)
 2 (n = 383) 5.5 (3.6–8.3) 3.7 (2.2–6.1) 84.1 (80.1–87.4)
 3 or more (n = 196) 12.2 (8.3–17.6) 5.6 (3.1–9.9) 91.3 (86.5–94.5)