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Table 4 Association of independent variables and health service utilization

From: Socio-economic inequalities in health service utilization among Chinese rural migrant workers with New Cooperative Medical Scheme: a multilevel regression approach

Variables Two-week outpatient probability Inpatient probability
OR SE OR SE
Individual characteristics
 Age group
  15 ~ 36     
  36 ~ 50 1.010 0.219 0.724 0.152
  50 ~ 64 1.001 0.247 1.197 0.263
 Gender
  Men     
  Women 0.865 0.182 1.753* 0.398
 Living arrangement
  Live with spouse     
  Live without spouse 0.539** 0.119 1.231 0.310
 Educational attainment
  Below primary school     
  Primary school 1.363 0.269 1.277 0.242
  Middle school and above 1.087 0.291 1.140 0.287
 Technical certificate
  Yes     
  No 0.967 0.261 0.679 0.164
 Type of industry
  Professional technician/Clerical staff     
  Service stuff 0.862 0.305 1.404 0.553
  Manufacturing and construction 0.720 0.267 1.721 0.698
  Freelancer 0.532 0.219 1.378 0.606
 Type of unit
  Party/government/state-owned     
  Collective enterprises and institutions 1.107 0.369 1.273 0.430
  Self-employed and freelance 1.318 0.459 1.234 0.434
 Working hours
  Moderate labor     
  Excessive labor 1.091 0.180 0.920 0.145
 Place of work
  In the county/district     
  Across the county/district 0.867 0.127 1.689** 0.416
 Income quintiles
  Poorest     
  Poorer 0.884 0.230 1.037 0.239
  Middle 0.695 0.186 0.761 0.191
  Richer 0.824 0.316 1.025 0.256
  Richest 0.612 0.182 1.151 0.303
 Injury insurance
  Yes     
  No 0.616 0.169 1.289 0.405
 number of friends
   <  = 5     
  6 ~ 10 1.061 0.220 0.790 0.156
   >  = 11 0.506 0.170 1.054 0.220
 SAH
  Good     
  Fair 3.947*** 0.889 2.462*** 0.442
  Poor 14.608*** 3.182 8.280*** 1.872
health behavior
 Smoke     
  Yes     
  No 1.429 0.312 0.332 0.331
 Alcohol use
  Yes     
  No 1.168 0.264 0.363 0.292
 Regular exercise every month
  Yes     
  No 0.759 0.137 0.109 0.252
Health outcome
 Sense of happiness     
  Unhappy     
  Fair 0.894 0.236 0.956 0.293
  Happy 0.697 0.184 1.267 0.372
Contextual characteristic
 Proportion of ethnic minorities 1.005 0.004 1.006 0.003
 Per capita in the community 1.000 1.10 × 10–5 0.929 9.65 × 10–5
 Region
  East     
  Middle 1.351 0.402 0.876 0.204
  West 1.062 0.345 0.934 0.246
 City level
  Sub-provincial city and above     
  Other 1.345 0.390 1.166 0.260
  Number of medical institutions for 10,000 people in the community 2.32 × 10–30 2.17 × 10–28 0.994 0.008
  Number of medical institutions for 10,000 people in the city 1.011 0.097 1.025 0.084
  Number of doctors for 10,000 people in the city 1.000 0.003 0.989 0.002
  Number of beds for 10,000 people in the city 0.991 0.006 0.995 0.005
  Health index of the community 0.892 0.145 0.994 0.128
  Service quality index of the community 1.089 0.129 1.078 0.113
  Urban service quality index 0.973 0.209 0.963 0.178
  Intercept 0.108 0.089 0.015** 0.013
  1. The Symbol of “*” is defined by a p value < 0.05; the Symbol of “**” is defined by a p value < 0.01; the Symbol of “***” is defined by a p value < 0.001 
  2. Reference levels in the regressions