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Table 6 Bivariate analysis of the dichotomized Social Role score in the surveyed Venezuelan immigrants in commercial zones of Lima, Peru (N = 143)

From: Association between time of residence and self-perception of distress, interpersonal relationships, and social role in Venezuelan immigrants in Lima, Peru 2018–19: mixed-methods study

Variables Clinically Significant Not Clinically Significant p-value*
(n = 33) (n = 110)
Gender
 Masculine 22 (26.5%) 61 (73.5%) p = 0.316
 Feminine 11 (18.3%) 49 (81.7%)
Age (median, IQR) 28 (24 – 39) 26 (22–32) p = 0.072†
Age groupa
 18–19 1 (12.5%) 7 (87.5%) p = 0.458††
 20–24 9 (18.8%) 39 (81.2%)  
 25–59 23 (26.4%) 64 (73.6%)  
Civil statusb
 Without partner 24 (22.4%) 83 (77.6%) p = 0.752††
 With partner 9 (25.0%) 27 (75.0%)
Education level
 Primary 1 (33.3%) 2 (66.7%) p = 0.141
 Secondary 15 (31.3%) 33 (68.7%)
 Higher educationc 17 (18.5%) 75 (81.5%)
Raced
 White 9 (17.7%) 42 (82.3%) p = 0.687
 Colored 21 (25.9%) 60 (74.1%)
 Black 2 (28.6%) 5 (71.4%)
 Indigenous 0 (0.0%) 1 (100.0%)
 Other 1 (33.3%) 2 (66.7%)  
Monthly income (soles)e
  < 930 31 (77.5%) 9 (22.5%) p = 0.919††
  ≥ 930 24 (23.3%) 79 (76.7%)  
Months in Peru (median, IQR) 7 (3 – 11) 6 (4 – 9) p = 0.686†
Migratory qualityf
 Without work permit 0 (0.0%) 8 (100.0%) p = 0.198
 With work permit 33 (24.4%) 102 (75.6%)  
First entry point into Peru
 Lima/Callao 1 (7.1%) 13 (92.9%) p = 0.221
 Piura 4 (33.3%) 8 (66.7%)  
 Tumbes 28 (24.1%) 88 (75.9%)  
Home region
 Andean 1 (8.3%) 11 (91.7%) p = 0.477
 Capital 10 (27.8%) 26 (72.2%)
 Central 10 (32.3%) 21 (67.7%)  
 Guayana 2 (28.6%) 5 (71.4%)  
 Insular 1 (25.0%) 3 (75.0%)  
 Llanos 1 (33.3%) 2 (66.7%)  
 Eastern 3 (18.8%) 13 (81.2%)  
 Central-Western 5 (25.0%) 15 (75.0%)  
 Zulia 0 (0.0%) 10 (100.0%)  
Travel method
 Foot 0 (0.0%) 1 (100.0%) p = 0.311
 Bus 32 (26.0%) 91 (74.0%)  
 Air 1 (7.1%) 13 (92.9%)  
 Mixedh 0 (0.0%) 5 (100.0%)  
  1. *p < 0.050 using Fisher exact test except those marked with † or †† where Mann-Whitney U test or chi-squared test were used, respectively
  2. aAge groups are according to the World Health Organization, 2017
  3. bWith partner includes married (13.3%) and cohabitant (11.9%); without partner includes single (74.1%), and widowed (0.7%)
  4. cHigher education includes university, institute, technical career, without importance to whether it was finalized
  5. dBased on designations in the 2011 Venezuelan Census. Other refers to any other self-reported race that is not explicitly mentioned
  6. eThe minimum wage in Peru is 930 soles (April 1, 2018)
  7. fWithout work permit incudes refugee claimant (2.1%) and tourist (3.5%); with work permit includes Temporary Permit of Permanence (85.3%), resident (2.1%), family of resident (0.7%), refugee (2.8%), and immigrant (3.5%)
  8. gPolitical-administrative regions are according to the Government of Venezuela (June 7, 1969)
  9. hAny combination of more than one travel method