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Table 3 Bivariate analysis of the dichotomized total OQ-45.2 score in the surveyed Venezuelan immigrants in commercial zones of Lima, Peru (N = 143)

From: Association between time of residence and self-perception of distress, interpersonal relationships, and social role in Venezuelan immigrants in Lima, Peru 2018–19: mixed-methods study

Variables Clinically Significant Not Clinically Significant p-value*
(n = 6) (n = 137)  
Gender
 Masculine 6 (7.2%) 77 (92.8%) p = 0.040
 Feminine 0 (0.0%) 60 (100.0%)
Age (median, IQR) 24 (21 – 27) 26 (22 – 33) p = 0.270†
Age groupa
 18–19 1 (12.5%) 7 (87.5%) p = 0.427
 20–24 2 (4.2%) 46 (95.8%)  
 25–59 3 (3.5%) 84 (96.5%)  
Civil statusb
 Without partner 6 (5.6%) 101 (94.4%) p = 0.337
 With partner 0 (0.0%) 36 (100.0%)
Education level
 Primary 0 (0.0%) 3 (100.0%) p = 0.280
 Secondary 4 (8.3%) 44 (91.7%)
 Higher educationc 2 (2.2%) 90 (97.8%)
Raced
 White 0 (0.0%) 51 (100.0%) p = 0.235
 Colored 6 (7.4%) 75 (92.6%)
 Black 0 (0.0%) 7 (100.0%)
 Indigenous 0 (0.0%) 1 (100.0%)
 Other 0 (0.0%) 3 (100.0%)  
Monthly income (soles)e
  < 930 2 (5.0%) 38 (95.0%) p = 0.672
  ≥ 930 4 (3.9%) 99 (96.1%)  
Months in Peru (median, IQR) 6 (3 – 9) 7 (4 – 10) p = 0.701†
Migratory qualityf
 Without work permit 0 (0.0%) 8 (100.0%) p = 1.000
 With work permit 6 (4.4%) 129 (95.6%)  
First entry point into Peru
 Lima/Callao 0 (0.0%) 14 (100.0%) p = 1.000
 Piura 0 (0.0%) 12 (100.0%)  
 Tumbes 6 (5.2%) 109 (94.8%)  
Home region
 Andean 0 (0.0%) 12 (100.0%) p = 0.542
 Capital 2 (5.6%) 34 (94.4%)
 Central 1 (3.2%) 30 (96.8%)  
 Guayana 1 (14.3%) 6 (85.7%)  
 Insular 0 (0.0%) 4 (100.0%)  
 Llanos 0 (0.0%) 3 (100.0%)  
 Eastern 2 (12.5%) 14 (87.5%)  
 Central-Western 0 (0.0%) 20 (100.0%)  
 Zulia 0 (0.0%) 10 (100.0%)  
Travel method
 Foot 0 (0.0%) 1 (100.0%) p = 0.319
 Bus 5 (4.1%) 118 (95.9%)  
 Air 0 (33.3%) 14 (100.0%)  
 Mixedh 1 (20.0%) 4 (80.0%)  
  1. *p < 0.050 using Fisher exact test except those marked with † or †† where Mann-Whitney U test or chi-squared test were used, respectively
  2. aAge groups are according to the World Health Organization, 2017
  3. bWith partner includes married (13.3%) and cohabitant (11.9%); without partner includes single (74.1%), and widowed (0.7%)
  4. cHigher education includes university, institute, technical career, without importance to whether it was finalized
  5. dBased on designations in the 2011 Venezuelan Census. Other refers to any other self-reported race that is not explicitly mentioned
  6. eThe minimum wage in Peru is 930 soles (April 1, 2018)
  7. fWithout work permit incudes refugee claimant (2.1%) and tourist (3.5%); with work permit includes Temporary Permit of Permanence (85.3%), resident (2.1%), family of resident (0.7%), refugee (2.8%), and immigrant (3.5%)
  8. gPolitical-administrative regions are according to the Government of Venezuela (June 7, 1969)
  9. hAny combination of more than one travel method